Presentation on theme: "By Carol Valenta. The group of “wannabe” archaeologists!"— Presentation transcript:
By Carol Valenta
The group of “wannabe” archaeologists!
Ready to Begin! We arrived at the site and began to learn about the equipment and the procedures we would be using. The site was closed when we arrived, and our first jobs were to open it up, and to start digging to look for more areas to excavate.
The tools are carried to sites in this trailer
Getting ready to dig!
This is an archaeologist’s kit. What do you think these tools might be used for?
Shovels need to be kept sharp!
Walking to the site.
This is what the site looked like when we arrived. It had been covered for the winter.
A covered feature with a photo of what it looked like before it was covered.
Here we are looking for a feature. First you remove the “plow zone,” and then you look for stains that indicate organic activity.
And we dug…
You have to skim the soil off a little at a time when you reach the bottom of the plow zone.
And we dug!!!!!
Still looking for a feature!
It was so hot the lens of my camera fogged up!
Some new areas were tested by clearing a 2m² area.
We also did shovel tests.
A two shovel-width hole is dug; you go down about six inches below the plow zone to see if you find something.
Some features were found
Do you see the different colors of soil?
Look for the stain.
Feature borders were defined and plan maps were drawn
Features are carefully measured and graphed. Notice the paperwork?
Features are excavated one half at a time
Profile Wall A profile wall allows you to see the feature shape and depth.
Soil at the very top of a level is collected to take back to the lab for analysis. It is called a matrix sample.
We took off only 5 cm of soil for each level.
You have to measure often to be sure you only take off 5 cm soil at a time.
Soil is collected in buckets
All soil needs to be screened for artifacts. This is a ¼ inch screen.
Sometimes levels are removed in “zones.”
The walls of the feature must be carefully maintained.
Don’t step on the edge of the profile wall! The wall will cave in!
Soil is very carefully removed so that no artifact is harmed.
A trowel removes the soil a little at a time so you don’t miss, or break any artifacts.
You might have to “pedestal” around the artifact.
Can you see the pedestal?
Sometimes a paintbrush is used.
A bamboo scoop might protect the artifact.
If an artifact is found, it must be put in a bag and carefully labeled.
A photograph is taken at each level including information of exact placement of the feature.
Paperwork is an important part of the process.
Paperwork is done at each step.
Count the people doing paperwork!
Some people found great artifacts!
Large pieces of Oneota pottery.
A closer view of a large pot sherd.
A close up of the pot sherd once it was removed.
You can still see the finger markings from when the pot was formed, over 500 years ago.
Features are covered for the night.
Covering helps keep the soil from drying out.
We saw the artifacts that the landowners have found.
Projectile Points Most of their artifacts were found when they plowed the fields.
A rare woven bag was found on a shelf in a rock shelter. They kept careful records about where the items were found.
A metate, used to grind corn, along with a mano.
Pieces of Pottery
This is the Ulna of a Mastodon. (Elbow, lower arm)
We learned activities for our classes
Making beads with clay.
The pottery needs to be fired.
Flintknapping is the art of stone shaping.
Making a projectile point.
We learned to work with copper. This is copper when it is just picked up off the ground.
We hammered the copper to flatten it and take out the impurities.
Hammered Copper Copper can be hammered together to make bigger pieces.
We learned how to make drills.
The bow drill made drilling easier. They also learned to use this to make fire.
The pump drill was a technological advance.
An atlatl is used to throw a spear farther.
The spear is hooked onto the atlatl.
The spear releases and goes where you aim it.
Unless you’re Mrs. Valenta; then it only goes three feet! (I can practice!)
We visited the lab
Soil must be dried before it is analyzed.
A fine mesh screen will be used to strain things from the soil.
A process called “floating” finds charcoal and other small items.
Very small items such as seeds are found by screening through a fine screen, and bagged up in a piece of cloth.
The pieces in the cloth are dried, and will be analyzed.
All soil is washed away.
Flakes found in a matrix sample.
Artifacts are analyzed in the lab.
A microscope is used to separate small items.
All artifacts need to be washed.
Artifacts are handled carefully.
Notice that items are kept with their labels.
Artifacts are then dried.
All information is kept in order so we know where the artifact came from.
Each artifact gets its own number.
Each number is painted onto the artifact it corresponds to.
You need a steady hand!
If pieces that are found together fit, they are glued together.
A special adhesive is carefully applied.
Pieces are held together until they adhere.
The pottery pieces are supported while they dry.
Sometimes many pieces can be found and glued together.
Artifacts are stored after they have been cataloged.
There are many interesting things in Archaeological Museums. This is a replica of a mussel shell hoe.
This is a Mammoth tooth
Can you see the difference between the mammoth tooth and the mastodon tooth?
This is a replica of a Bison scapula (shoulder blade) hoe.
This is how the hoe is used. This one is getting worn out.
This is a replica of a rattle made from deer toes.
These are grinding stones, called a mano and metate.
We went on field trips
Woodland Indians built mounds Perrot State Park, Wisconsin
Effigy Mounds are built in the shape of animals
Effigy mounds are difficult to see since they are so large. This is the deer effigy mound.
Various animal shapes are used.
The Wolf Mound
Mounds are also found in conical and linear shapes.
Conical Mounds in Perrot State Park
A replica of rock art found in Wisconsin.
A Rock Shelter in Perrot State Park.
Big enough to house 25!
Effigy Mounds National Monument in Iowa
The mounds are built on a high ridge over the Mississippi River.
Linear mounds sometimes connect conical mounds.
In Wisconsin, a cemetery was built on Woodland Indians’ conical mounds.
Did they know where they were putting the cemetery?