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The Stone Age The Early Hominids Early Civilizations The Neolithic Period.

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Presentation on theme: "The Stone Age The Early Hominids Early Civilizations The Neolithic Period."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Stone Age The Early Hominids Early Civilizations The Neolithic Period

2 The Question of Evolution The origins of humankind are strongly debated today by scientists and theologians Scientists agree evolution is strongly supported by fossil evidence Theologians look to written word in Bible

3 The Question of Evolution Archaeologist, study ancient cultures through the recovery of artifacts and human remains Culture, is a people’s way of life based on their customs, art, and ideas Artifacts are ancient human made tools or goods Anthropologists study human cultures

4 The Early Hominids Australopithecus, a ground dwelling ape believed to be earliest ancestor of man Homo habilis believed to have lived 2.5 million years ago fossils were discovered in Tanzania, Africa Habilis walked like man and had a developed and usable thumb

5 The Early Hominids Homo erectus appeared in Africa around 1.8 million years ago Erectus used fire and were first to migrate to areas in Europe, Asia and Middle East Homo sapiens sapiens, birth of the thinking man Adapted to his climate by wearing fur clothes and using fire

6 The Paleolithic Period 600,000-10,000 B.C. Hunter-gatherer culture clans (clans typically had members) Diet consisted mostly of plants Moved to regions seasonally and traded with other clans as they traveled

7 The Paleolithic Period 600,000-10,000 B.C. Sewed animal skins into clothes and shelter Used stone tools like stone axes and stone spears In time made specialized items like: flints, needles, spear launchers and ritual items Gender roles not specific

8 The Paleolithic Period 600,000-10,000 B.C. Introduced cave paintings that reinforced rituals Warfare was over territory and short termed Did not suffer diseases because of small populations and movement Were not materialistic because they constantly moved

9 The Neolithic Period 10,000- 3,000 B.C. The Middle East was the natural home of wheat and barely which were easy to grow Animals in this region were easy to domesticate (sheep, goats, horses, pigs and cows) Animals provided a food source and labor source This leads to sedimentary living

10 The Neolithic Period 10,000- 3,000 B.C. Living in a fixed settlements lead to the beginning of ownership of belongings This leads to an established social order Emergence of slavery

11 The Neolithic Period 10,000- 3,000 B.C. Various ways to become a slave in Middle East –Parents sell children –Sold themselves into slavery –Born into slavery Slaves could buy their freedom Child could be free if father was free Being a slave was based on bad luck or parents status. It was not based on race.

12 The Neolithic Period 10,000- 3,000 B.C. Because villages had more people warfare changed Fighting was now worth while because losers became slaves and their goods and property went to the victors Build of walls to protect villages

13 The Neolithic Period 10,000- 3,000 B.C. Neolithic Revolution (agriculture revolution) was the transition from a hunter-gather society to a food producing society Humans settled down to cultivate crops and domesticate animals Slash and burn farming is the practice of clearing forest areas of trees and then burning the area to make a clear field for crops (ash acted as a fertilizer)

14 The Neolithic Period 10,000- 3,000 B.C. As families grew around each other they formed a clan Groups of clans formed a tribe Tribes were unified based on common speech, culture, religion and occupied land

15 The Neolithic Period 10,000- 3,000 B.C. Wonder of world around them led to belief that spirits inhabited animals, plants and weather (animisms) This led to the worshipping of spirits and belief in afterlife Spirits or gods of fertility emerge (female) Emergence of shamans to heal and ward off evil spirits

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17 The Neolithic Period 10,000- 3,000 B.C. Emergence of bronze (copper and tin) Simple science is seen through emergence of inventions (pottery and weaving) and domestication and husbandry of animals Specialized skills emerge like weavers, and metal workers

18 The Neolithic Period 10,000- 3,000 B.C. Emergence of government was based on beliefs of clan or tribe Enforcement of behavior was to maintain order and protection of tribe Incest, rape, threat to peace of tribe and witchcraft were punishable by death Elders determined rulings

19 The Neolithic Period 10,000- 3,000 B.C. The family was the basic socialization unit Marriage is monogamous Extended families supported each other Men and women develop roles within the family


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