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11. Threads A way to support several parallel activities in a program Execute asynchronously and ”simultaneously” e.g. timeslicing If two threads are dependent.

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Presentation on theme: "11. Threads A way to support several parallel activities in a program Execute asynchronously and ”simultaneously” e.g. timeslicing If two threads are dependent."— Presentation transcript:

1 11. Threads A way to support several parallel activities in a program Execute asynchronously and ”simultaneously” e.g. timeslicing If two threads are dependent on each other synchronization may be necessary If they depend on a shared resource then deadlock, livelock or race conditions can occur. One solution to synchronization is the semaphore

2 11.1 Example: Web browser Problem: fetching images, files, sound etc takes time. Don’t want to lock up screen while waiting, e.g. can’t scroll down screen or abort fetch. Solution: create separate thread for page fetch and start this on each new fetch.

3 11.2 Threads in Java Interface Runnable with method run() classes Thread, Write run() yourself To start a thread start() start() calls run() immediately To stop a thread interrupt() Try to avoid stop(), suspend(), resume()

4 11.3 Thread Safety/Management Problem: threads running methods on the same object may corrupt that object. E.g. internal bank transfer. acc[i] = acc[i]+x acc[i] = acc[i]+y acc[j] = acc[j]-x acc[j] = acc[j]-y Problem: keep the bank total constant!

5 Solution: synchronization on objects Aka Monitors Give each object a lock. Thread gets a lock by calling a synchronized object method. When one thread has the lock on an object no other thread may get the lock. Lock is on the object, not its methods Unsynchronized methods can still be called.

6 Lock a method with synchronized public synchronized void transfer (int from, int to) { acc[from] -= amount; acc[to] += amount; num_transactions++; } Looks fine, but what if an account mustn’t go negative (no credit facility)??

7 Problem: what happens if we get the lock and can’t proceed? Another thread which had the lock could allow us to proceed! Thread calls wait() method Gives up the lock temporarily, Enters queue of waiting threads on the object. notify() reawakens one thread in queue notifyAll() reawakens all threads in queue

8 public synchronized void transfer (int from, int to) { while ( acc[from] < amount ) { wait(); } // inactive wait! acc[to] += amount; num_transactions++; notifyAll(); } Try to avoid deadlocks, livelocks and races!!

9 11.4 Rules (for the WC!) 1.If 2 or more threads modify an object, declare them as synchronized. Read-only methods which are affected must also be synchronized. (Decency Rule 1) 2.If a thread must wait for a change, wait inside the object by entering a synchronized method and doing a wait. (Decency Rule 2)

10 3.Don’t spend a long time in a synchronized method. If you can’t complete, perform a wait(). (Fairness Rule 1) 4.Whenever a method changes the state of the object, execute a notifyAll(). (Fairness Rule 2) 5.wait() and notifyAll()/notify() are methods of the Object class, not the Thread class. make sure waits are matched by notifies on the same object. (Fairness Rule 3)

11 11.5 Real-Time Issues Real-time systems are not necessarily fast Programmer gives guarantees for execution time, etc Operating system must handle time, parallel activities, scheduling and priority of processes, as well as interrupts Program uses synchronization (semaphores), conditional execution (event variables) e.g. using monitors (ADT)

12 11.6 Timers Class Timer Constructor Timer(int delay, ActionListener l) void start() : starts the timer void stop(): stops the timer sending events actionPerformed() of l is called whenever a timer interval has elapsed.

13 11.7 Real-Time Example When we burn a CD the hardware must not pause but write continuously. The data buffer may therefore not become empty. In Windows or Unix there is no guarantee for this under heavy loading. In a real-time OS such loading is dealt with by lowered priorities (burn has highest).

14 12. Data Structures What kind of problem is to be solved? –Queue (FIFO) –Stack (LIFO) –Random Access (sorted or unsorted) Table with lookup using keys Set, 1 copy of each List many copies

15 12.1 Collections Collection Interfaces –JList –JTree –Vector, LinkedList –Set (1 copy of each object) –HashSet, TreeSet –Map (lookup key + value in a table) –AbstractMap, HashMap, TreeMap

16 12.2 Pattern Iterator For each data structure we need a method to traverse it, a so called iterator Example: Trees, breadth-first, depth-first Method will affect run-time performance, but end-user shouldn’t see this, only see iterator interface.

17 Iterator (Cont.) Data Structure Vector Start of traversal i = 0; Increment traversal i++; Get i-th element myVector.get(i); Finished traversal? i < myVector.size();

18 12.3 Trees Need a node called root A node can have several child nodes A childless node is called a leaf Example: DefaultMutableTreeNode parent.add(child); adds a child to a node See also in Lab ex. 4.

19 TreeModel model = … ; Jtree tree = new Jtree(model); Make a class that implements TreeModel interface. DefaultTreeModel already does this. TreeNode root = …; DefaultTreeModel model = new DefaultTreeModel(root); TreeNode is another interface.

20 DefaultMutableTreeNode already implements MutableTreeNode a subinterface of TreeNode. DefaultMutableTreeNode node = new DefaultMutableTreeNode(“Stockholm”); or node.setUserObject(“Göteborg”) Now to construct a tree!

21 DefaultMutableTreeNode root = new DefaultMutableTreeNode(“World”); DefaultMutableTreeNode country = new DefaultMutableTreeNode(“Sverige”); DefaultMutableTreeNode town = new DefaultMutableTreeNode(“Stockholm”); root.add(country); country.add(town); DefaultTreeModel model = new DefaultTreeModel(root); JTree tree = new JTree(model); Container contentPane = getContentPane(); contentPane.add(new JScrollPane(tree));

22 What about the iterators? enumeration e = root.breadthFirstEnumeration(); while (e.hasMoreElements()) { DefaultMutableTree node = (DefaultMutableTree)e.nextElement(); /* do something with node … e.g. */ if (node.getUserObject().equals(obj) ) return node; }

23 13. Java and Operating Systems Java is OS independent Class Runtime gives an interface to the OS Applets execute in a sandbox where a security manager controls access to file system, network connections, devices, etc. Applications can be given a security manager.

24 13.1 Execution of Java Class file is not binary and isn’t executed directly in hardware. Java byte code executes on a virtual java machine jvm … slow?? Applets execute in an appletviewer or a web-browser with a jvm Beans execute in a BeanBox

25 13.2 Execution of Java (Cont.) Can connect Java code to other code (C, C++, Fortran etc.) vis JNI java native interface 3 rd party suppliers have compilers to binary code. Increases speed but loses platform independence. Write-once, debug everywhere!! ?? (NM!)

26 14. BNF Grammars Standard format to define new context-free grammars, Backus-Naur-Form BNF. Example: Proposition ::= Subject Predicate Subject ::= “I” | “you” Predicate ::= “know” | “think” Gives strings I know, I think, you know, you think

27 14.1 BNF Example Statement ::= Proposition | Proposition Conjunction Statement Conjunction ::= “and” | “that” Gives I know that you think that I think and you know

28 14.2 Parse Trees I know that you think that I think subpred sub conj prop statement

29 14.3 Ambiguity This language is unambiguous. i.e. every string in the language has a unique parse tree. Tip: use recursive descent in lab ex. 4 and a method for each symbol in the grammar.

30 I know that you think that I think subpred sub conj prop statement prop/statement statement

31 14.4 Language Analysis Skaldic (old Icelandic) poetry – kennings man ::= “man” | “tree of the” battle | “thrower of the” sword | “giver of the” gold gold ::= “gold” | “fire of the” war war ::= “war” | “storm of the” spear spear ::= “spears” | “witch of the” shield shield ::= “shield” | “moon of the ship”

32 Giver of the fire of the storm of the witch of the moon of the ship Construct a parse tree for this kenning to understand its structure. Are kennings simply metaphors? Only a great poet was allowed to introduce a new kenning rule! Add some rules! M. I. Steblin-Kamenskii, Icelandic Culture, 1967. “As a rule, any kenning for a warrior was no richer in content than the pronoun “he” ”

33 14.5 XML Not related to UML!!! XML = eXtensible Markup Language An internet standard for data interchange, e.g. between databases. Defines a data interface. Originates from SGML and is related to HTML

34 14.6 XML Methodology Tagged data e.g. rose rose Data marked up with its identity e.g.

35 Helvetica 36 Karl Meinke 6337

36 Optional (recommended) header Optional document type declaration (DTD) Finally the root element … An element can contain child elements, text or both (but both makes a messy DTD!) Use attributes to modify data interpretation, and not to specify values

37 Parsing an XML document Document Object Model (DOM) parser reads an XML document into a tree structure Simple API for XML (SAX) pareser generates events as it reads an XML document. Sun provides its own DOM parser Be careful with whitespace around tags!

38 import javax.xml.parsers.*; import javax.swing.tree.*; … DocumentBuilderFactory factory = DocumentBuilderFactory.newInstance(); DocumentBuilder builder = factory.newDocumentBuilder(); File f = … Document doc = builder.parse(f); /*tree structure of the document*/ Element root = doc.getDocumentElement(); NodeList children = root.getChildNodes(); Node firstchild = children.item(1);

39 14.7 DTD Usually an external file (small DTDs can be internal) Specifies the format of tagged data. An XML document is valid (wrt a DTD) if it satisfies the format of the DTD Can build XML validators – prevent data corruption, more efficient parse, etc. factory.setValidating(true);

40 e.g. A font element consists of a name element followed by a size element e.g. A kenning DTDs define regular expressions XML assumes grammar is unambiguous!!

41 RuleMeaning E*0 or more occurrences of E E+1 or more occurrences of E E?0 or 1 occurrences of E E 1 | … | E n E 1 or E 2 …. or E n E 1, …, E n E 1 followed by E 2 followed by … followed by E n #PCDATAText AnyAny children allowed EmptyNo children allowed

42 Can also specify attributes of elements Style attribute can be plain, bold or italic, but default is plain. Unit attribute of size is a character sequence and optional Now unit is not optional!

43 ]>

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