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1 10/6 notes Wolf essays due next time Paul out of town –Office hour tomorrow at 11:00.

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Presentation on theme: "1 10/6 notes Wolf essays due next time Paul out of town –Office hour tomorrow at 11:00."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 10/6 notes Wolf essays due next time Paul out of town –Office hour tomorrow at 11:00

2 2 Archaic and Anasazi First: Folsom, Archaic, and corn Anasazi: Chaco Anasazi: Mesa Verde and Kayenta

3 3 Archaic –After Clovis, megafauna extinction –5500 BC to 1500 BC Some have it ending at BC-AD –Nomadic hunter-gatherers Deer, rabbits, small game Wild plants –Seasonal camps

4 4 Atlatl Aztec word –A-tul-A-tul –At-LAT-ul Spear thrower You, too, can excel –Atlatl clubs –Bow, arrow by ~AD 500

5 5 Corn Arrival of corn: 2000 BC Full dependence on corn:500 BC Advantages: –Makes an abundance of food –Store it (especially when pottery evolved) –More kids Disadvantages –Not very nutritional –Limited hunting activities –Ground with stones – teeth problems.

6 6 Teosinte

7 7

8 8 Anasazi Caveat Yes, “Anasazi” is Navajo for “ancient ones” Yes, many Anasazi prehistoric sites lie within present Navajo Reservation Yes, Keet Seel and Betatakin House are in Navajo National Monument But no, Anasazi and Navajo not otherwise ancestrally related Anasazi  Hisatsinom (Hopi)

9 9 Anasazi Centers

10 10 Climate Mesa Verde –Cool, wet Kayenta –Warm, wet Chaco –Cool, dry SE Utah –Warm, dry

11 11 Pretty bleak at Chaco today 6500 ft PJ, Great Basin scrub

12 12 Pithouses 500 BC – AD 800 Mostly underground Entry through roof

13 13 Great Houses Beginning by AD 800 to 900 Huge relative to nearby buildings Symmetrical layouts Banded masonry

14 14 Pueblo Bonito 500 feet across 310 feet deep 4 stories Could house 1000 people Passive solar effects Kivas

15 15

16 16 Chetro Ketl 4 stories in back Large plaza Kivas up front Completely enclosed

17 17 Over 200,000 ponderosa pine trees used Packrats show no late Holocene ponderosa Trees carried in? From where? How?

18 18 Chuska Mts. 60 miles away Today: –Rocky Mt. ponderosa pine –Also spruce and fir

19 19 Long distance transport ~200,000 trees Perfect for tree- ring dating

20 20 Peñasco Blanco “garden” Diverted water from mesa top. Chaco Irrigation

21 21 Chaco Canyon Abandonment No major construction after AD 1150 –No tree ring dates after 1132 –Perhaps occupants, but stopped thriving Why? –Drought –Resource depletion

22 22 Chaco Precipitation Tree-ring based Typical of today High variability Long drought, 1130 Lasted 50 years 1130

23 23 Piñon-Juniper Persisted Until Abandonment Overuse? No piñon now Juniper coming back

24 24 Well preserved, little excavation needed –Perishables: food, clothing Cliff Palace (~200 rooms) Cliff Dwellings

25 25 Keet Seel Largest AZ cliff dwelling (155 rooms) Well preserved: “like they left yesterday”

26 26 Keet Seel Part of Navajo NM Overnight hike Tours in summer Permit required: (928)

27 27 MV & Kayenta Chronology 500 BC – AD 800 –Cultivation important –Pithouse dwellings –Ceramics (pottery) start AD 800 – AD 1150 –Unit surface pueblos

28 28 MV & Kayenta Chronology 1150 – 1300 –MV at AD 1200: Cliff dwellings, total population: 30,000 people –Kayenta at AD 1250: Cliff dwellings 1300 –MV and Kayenta abandoned –Last tree-ring dates: mid 1280s.

29 29 Kayenta vs. Mesa Verde Farming

30 30 MV farmed mesa tops –Valley bottoms too narrow –Reliance on summer rains for irrigation –Vulnerable to extended drought Kayenta vs. Mesa Verde Farming

31 31

32 32

33 33 Mesa Verde today

34 34 MV farmed mesa tops –Valley bottoms too narrow –Reliance on summer rains for irrigation –Vulnerable to extended drought Kayenta farmed valley bottoms –Upland soils too sparse –Reliance on groundwater for irrigation –Vulnerable to sediment loss. Kayenta vs. Mesa Verde Farming

35 35 Tsegi Canyon (“among the rocks”)

36 36 Canyon de Chelly

37 37

38 ft. 20 ft.

39 39 ¼ - ½ mile

40 40 Why did they leave? Drought “Great Drought” of 1276 – 1299 Mesa Verde affected

41 41 Sediment loss Perhaps due to tree cutting, over cultivation Kayenta affected. Why did they leave?

42 42 Where Did They Go?

43 43 Post-1300 MV re-settlement: –Northern Rio Grande Kayenta re-settlement: –Hopi Region Considered ancestral to modern Puebloans (not to Navajo). Where Did They Go?

44 44 Pueblos Today Hopi in AZ Other Pueblos in NM

45 45 Anasazi and Environment Summary

46 46 Anasazi and Environment Summary People affect resources, affected by them –Large communities of rock and wood May have used up wood Divert, trap, save water –Sediment loss, drought Grow food –Still needed other food Finally had to move to new resources Could this apply to modern society?


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