Presentation on theme: "Hair Human hair is one of the most frequently found pieces of evidence at the scene of a violent crime. It can provide a link between the criminal and."— Presentation transcript:
1HairHuman hair is one of the most frequently found pieces of evidence at the scene of a violent crime.It can provide a link between the criminal and the crime.From hair, one can determine:If the source is human or animalRace (sometimes)Origin of the location on the source’s bodyWhether the hair was forcibly removedIf the hair has been treated with chemicalsIf drugs have been ingested
2Hair Shaft Composed of: Cuticle—outside covering, made of overlapping scalesCortex—inner layer made of keratin and embedded with pigment; also contains air sacs called cortical fusiMedulla—inside layer running down the center of the cortex
3The CuticleThe cuticle is the outermost layer of hair which is covered with scales.The scales point toward the tip of the hair.Scales differ among species of animals and are named based on their appearance.The three basic patterns are:CoronalSpinousImbricate
4Variations in the Cuticle Imbricate Cuticle: Indicates that hair sample is human.Spinous Cuticle: Indicates hair sample is from a cat.Coronal Cuticle: Found in dogs, bats and small rodents.
5Human Scales In order to visualize the scales: Paint clear fingernail polish on a glass slide.When the polish begins to dry, place a hair on the polish.When it is almost dry, lift off the hair and observe the scale imprints.What pattern is seen in this slide?
6The Cortex The cortex gives the hair its shape. It has two major characteristics:Melanin—pigment granules that give hair its colorCortical fusi—air spaces, usually found near the root but may be found throughout the hair shaft
7Two Main Human Pigments Pheomelanin- Found in Blond and Red hairEumelanin - Found in black and brown hair
8The MedullaThe medulla is the hair core that is not always visible. The medulla comes in different types and patterns.Types:- Intermittent or interrupted- Fragmented- Continuous- Stacked- Absent—not present
93. Central/middle part of the hair shaft. 4. Shows great variation among people and species.
10Human MedullaHuman medulla may be continuous,fragmented, or absent.
11Medullary IndexDetermined by measuring the diameter of the medulla and dividing it by the diameter of the hair.Medullary index for human hair is generally less than 1/3.For animal hair, it is usually greater than 1/2.
12Different Patterns of Medulla UniserialMutiserialVacuolatedLatticeFragmented amorphousContinuous amorphousHair may or may not have a medulla.
13Hair Shape Can be straight, curly, or kinky, depending on the cross section, which may be round, oval, or crescent-shaped.Round(Straight)Oval(Curly)Crescent moon(Kinky)
14Hair GrowthGrows about 0.4 mm per day, or 1 cm per month; approximately one-half inch per monthTerminology- Anagen—hair is actively growing; lasts up to 5 years- Catagen—hair is not growing; a resting phase- Telogen—follicle is getting ready to push the hair out; lasts two to six months
15The RootHuman roots look different based on whether they have been forcibly removed or they are telogen hairs and have fallen out.Animal roots vary, but in general have a spear shape.Fallen outForcibly removed
16Negroid or African hair Racial Origin of HairNegroid HairHair shaft and cuticleIrregular in diameter.Dense, unevenly distributed pigmentOpaque hair shaftCross-sections = flat to ovalNegroid or African hair
17Racial Origin of Hair (continued) Asian HairDensely distributed pigments; arranged in large patchy areas or streaks.Medulla: prominent (often broad and continuous)Cuticle: thickCross-sectional shape: roundMongoloid or Asian hair
18Racial Origin of Hair (continued) Caucasian HairStraight or wavySparse to dense pigmentsFine to coarse evenly distributed pigmentsCross-sections = oval (more oval more wavy)
19How can we determine where a hair came from? Scalp hairs – uniform distribution of color and diameterPubic hairs – Short, curly, wide variations
20Variations in hair root Rounded root (no follicle): Indicates the hair fell out naturally.Follicle attached root: Hair was forcibly removed.
21Hair Comparison Color Length Diameter Distribution, shape, and color intensity of pigment granulesDyed hair has color in cuticle and cortexBleaching removes pigment and gives a yellow tintScale typesPresence or absence of medullaMedullary typeMedullary patternMedullary index
22DNA from Hair The root contains nuclear DNA. If the hair has been forcibly removed, some follicular tissue containing DNA may be attached.The hair shaft contains abundant mitochondrial DNA, inherited only from the mother. It can be typed by comparing relatives if no DNA from the body is available. This process is more difficult and more costly than using nuclear DNA.
23Collection of HairQuestioned hairs must be accompanied by an adequate number of control samples.From victimFrom possible suspectsFrom others who may have deposited hair at the sceneControl Sample50 full-length hairs from all areas of scalp24 full-length pubic hairs
24Hair ToxicologyCollections must be taken from different locations on the body to get an accurate timeline.Advantages:Easy to collect and storeIs externally availableCan provide information on the individual’s history of drug use or evidence of poisoning
25Identification and Collection of Hair Evidence Collection of visually observed hairsBy hand or with tweezers. (Tweezers are NOT recommended they damage the structure of the hair and crush the root (DNA))Clear tape - Lifts visible and non-visible hair
26Identification and Collection of Hair Evidence (Continued) Vacuums - Used on objects that cannot be transportedBrushing, scraping or shaking of garmentCombing and clipping - Pulls off loose hairs
27Comparison of Collected Hair Approximately hairs from various parts of the body should be collected and analyzedInvestigators make sure to label the hairs origin and method of collection
28Hair as a Chemical Indicator Hair can collect materials that come into the body and are delivered by the blood to the hair root, where they are deposited in the cortex.Many drugs and their metabolites, vitamins, and poisons can now be detected in a few mm of hair.Since hair grows at 1 cm/month, drug use can be traced over a longer period of time.
29Napoleon died in exile in 1821 Napoleon died in exile in By analyzing his hair, some investigators suggest he was poisoned by the deliberate administration of arsenic; others suggest that it was vapors from the dyes in the wallpaper that killed him.