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1 Chapter 5 Ancient Greece Review Gardner’s Art Through the Ages, 13e.

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1 1 Chapter 5 Ancient Greece Review Gardner’s Art Through the Ages, 13e

2 2 Figure 5-2 Geometric krater, from the Dipylon cemetery, Athens, Greece, ca. 740 BCE. 3’ 4 1/2” high. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. The beginning of Greek art is found in painted pottery and small scale sculpture. Artists established different categories of shapes of ceramic vessels- most important was the amphora - two- handled vase used to carry wine and oil Around 800 BC, pottery began to move away from purely non-objective designs - ornamental figures. Dipylon Vase was a grave monument - bottom has holes through which liquid offerings filtered down to the dead below- done in remembrance rather than to appease the soul of the dead. The vase functions as a grave marker depicting the funeral procession of an obviously well respected individual. The magnitude of his funeral procession and the size of the pot speaks to the wealth and position of the deceased family in the community. Contains no reference to an afterlife The nature of the ornamentation of these early works has led art historians to designate these as GEOMETRIC. (all empty spaces are filled with circles and M-shaped ornament. No open spaces.) The Geometric period artist did not confine his work to the three- dimensional medium alone. Greek Vase painting reflects the development of figural representation in a two-dimensional format. Figure 5.2, a krater, illustrates this evolution. Again the figures on the body of the krater are almost schematic in shape. The important factor in this depiction is the narrative value this vase shows. The funeral of the individual is shown and the mourners are demonstrating their grief by the gestures of raised arms. Unlike the Egyptians, this is a straightforward depiction of a funeral; no mythic creatures are present. How has the human figure been portrayed in this work?

3 3 Archaic Period - 6th C. BCE In the Archaic period, the Greeks developed a monumental stone sculpture for the representation of life-size, nude, young men (kouroi) and life-size, clothed, young women (korai). –The kouroi, which were evidently made to serve a funerary purpose at a gravesite, emulate the frontal pose of standard Egyptian statues, but, over the course of the sixth century, are carved with increasingly more realistic anatomy. Faces, however, retain the conventional "Archaic smile.“ – Korai, shown wearing contemporary fashionable clothing, evidently stood as votive offerings in temple sanctuaries Archaic Contextual Facts –First life-size stone statues in Greece - around 600 BCE –kouroi emulated the frontal poses of Egyptian statues –During 6 Century BCE Greek sculptors refined proportions and added “Archaic smiles” to their faces –Andokides Painter invented red-figure vase painting around 530 BCE. –Euphronios and Euthymides experimented with foreshortening In the Archaic period, the Greeks developed a monumental stone sculpture for the representation of life-size, nude, young men (kouroi) and life-size, clothed, young women (korai). –The kouroi, which were evidently made to serve a funerary purpose at a gravesite, emulate the frontal pose of standard Egyptian statues, but, over the course of the sixth century, are carved with increasingly more realistic anatomy. Faces, however, retain the conventional "Archaic smile.“ – Korai, shown wearing contemporary fashionable clothing, evidently stood as votive offerings in temple sanctuaries Archaic Contextual Facts –First life-size stone statues in Greece - around 600 BCE –kouroi emulated the frontal poses of Egyptian statues –During 6 Century BCE Greek sculptors refined proportions and added “Archaic smiles” to their faces –Andokides Painter invented red-figure vase painting around 530 BCE. –Euphronios and Euthymides experimented with foreshortening

4 4 Figure 5-8 Kouros, ca. 600 BCE. Marble, 6’ 1/2” high. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. The Archaic Period (6th C. BCE) saw the human figure developing more quickly and fluidly. Again the artist was fascinated with the male figure and the representation of not only a naked body, but also a body that has a clearly defined musculature. A kouros is a young male sometimes representing the god or a votive figure or a grave marker. In figure 5.8, this young male is reminiscent of the work of Egypt. A comparison with the Old Kingdom Dynasty IV figure of Menkaure and Khamerernebty (3.13) reveals a similarity in representation. Both works show the male figures with their arms clasped to their sides and striding forward; the major departure for the Greek Archaic work is the presentation of the figure as naked. Also in the kouros figure the arms are not part of the marble but carved freely, unlike the Egyptian work. Again the emphasis is on the natural representation of the body. Figure 3-13 Menkaure and Khamerernebty(?), from Gizeh, Egypt, Fourth Dynasty, ca. 2490– 2472 BCE. Graywacke, 4’ 6 1/2” high. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. How have the Egyptians influenced Greek sculpture? Juxtaposing the Lady of Auxerre (5.7) and the kouros together shows the continuing Greek fascination for the human body. Traditionally in the Archaic period, the female figure was depicted as clothed and the male figure was depicted as naked. Yet both figures indicate the evolution in the representation of human anatomy. The Lady of Auxerre artist has made an attempt to indicate her anatomy. Again comparing this figure to the Egyptian couple (3.13), the Lady of Auxerre shows a more realistic handling of her anatomy. The roundness of her shoulders, cocked elbow, and hand to her breast suggest a more comfortable handling of figural representation. Figure 5-7 Lady of Auxerre, ca. 650– 625 BCE. Limestone, 2’ 1 1/2” high. Louvre, Paris.

5 5 Figure 5-10 Kroisos, from Anavysos, Greece, ca. 530 BCE. Marble, 6’ 4” high. National Archaeological Museum, Athens. As already touched upon, the male figure or kouros in the Archaic period took on a variety of personas. The Kroisos figure c.530 BCE (5.10) is a grave marker for the young man who died in battle. Comparing this figure with the earlier kouros, c.600 BCE (5.8) figure shows that in the span of seventy years, figural representation has undergone great strides in human figural depiction. Even though the Kroisos is depicted in the same manner, striding forward with arms locked to his sides, the musculature is becoming more realistic. Rounded hips, smaller head and rounded cheeks demonstrate an increased attention to naturalism.

6 Figure 5-14 Elevations of the Doric and Ionic orders. 6 Compare Doric and Ionic Orders

7 7 Figure 5-18 Reconstruction drawing of the Siphnian Treasury, Delphi, Greece, ca. 530 BCE (John Burge). -Greek treasuries were small buildings set up for the safe storage of votive offerings. -Caryatids (female sculpture that functions as a supporting column) -Continuous sculptured frieze on all four sides of the building. -North frieze represents the popular theme of gigantomachy The Treasury of the Siphnians has a unique porch. The typical supporting columns have been replaced with female figural supports, caryatids. These support elements had been repeated later in the Erechtheion. How did the Classical architect- sculptor accommodate the role of architectural support with the role of figural sculpture? The Classical architect-sculptor successfully balanced the dual and contradictory functions of these female statue-columns by having enough rigidity to suggest the structural column and enough flexibility to suggest a living body. The role of architectural support is underscored by the vertical flutelike drapery folds which conceal the stiff, weight-bearing legs.

8 8 Figure 5-22 ANDOKIDES PAINTER, Achilles and Ajax playing a dice game (Athenian bilingual amphora), from Orvieto, Italy, ca. 525–520 BCE. Black-figure side (left) and red-figure side (right). 1’ 9” high. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. BILINGUAL PAINTING -New technique invented around 530 BCE by Andokides Painter (anonymous painter who decorated pottery by Andokides) -Panels are copies of Exekias’ work -The artist employed the same black glaze but instead of using it to create silhouettes of figures, the painter outlined the figures and then colored the background black. -The artist reserved the red clay for the figures themselves -Interior details were then drawn with a soft brush in place of a stiff metal graver, giving the painter much greater flexibility -Artist could vary the thickness of the lines

9 9 Figure 5-40 POLYKLEITOS, Doryphoros (Spear Bearer). Roman marble copy from Pompeii, Italy, after a bronze original of ca. 450–440 BCE, 6’ 11” high. Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Naples. Doryphoros (Spear Thrower), POLYKEITOS Originally titled Canon Established Polykleitos’ canon of proportions, setting ideal correlations among body parts Contrapposto Notice the harmony of opposites This sculpture is the embodiment of Polykleitos’s vision of the ideal statue of a nude male athlete and warrior. It epitomizes the intellectual rigor of Classical statuary design. The supporting leg’s function is echoed by the straight-hanging arm to provide the figure’s right side with columnar stability needed to anchor the left side’s dramatically flexed limbs. The tense and relaxed limbs also oppose each other diagonally. The head turns to the right and the hips slightly to the left, depicting motion without movement. This sculpture gives a new animation to the body, as the Archaic smile is no longer needed and the expression is now more serious. This dynamic asymmetrical balance, this motion while at rest, and the resulting harmony of opposites are the essence of the Polyleitan style

10 10 Figure 5-35 Warrior, from the sea off Riace, Italy, ca. 460–450 BCE. Bronze, 6’ 6” high. Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Reggio Calabria. This Riace Warrior, like most Classical Greek statues, was sculpted in bronze. Most Classical bronzes have not survived. Much of the Classical Greek sculptures today are Roman marble copies. The bronze can be cast and molded, while stone, a rigid structure, partakes its natural shape upon the stone that is produced from it. Bronze’s lightness and stability allow the perception of motion much easier than does the marble sculptures of the past. The weight shift is very pronounced, the head turns forcefully to the right, his shoulders tilt, his hips swing, and his arms are free from the body. This demonstrates the new lost wax casting method of sculpture. This statue is missing only the spear, shield and wreath that once accompanied the figure. The Riace Bronzes were discovered by accident by a diver off of the coast of Italy. They were found near the top of the “toe” of Italy’s “boot”.

11 ACROPOLIS FACTS: Established for the patron Goddess Athena as early as the Archaic period ( BC) THREE MAJOR SITES: PARTHENON ERECHTHEION TEMPLE of ATHENA NIKE

12 12 Figure 5-44 IKTINOS and KALLIKRATES, Parthenon, (Temple of Athena Parthenos, looking southeast), Acropolis, Athens, Greece, 447–438 BCE. The PARTHENON Constructed by the order of Pericles to house & honor Athena

13 The PARTHENON The centerpiece of the sculptural program of the Parthenon was the monumental statue of Athena in the main cella of the temple. The statue was made of gold and ivory, and was approximately 38 feet tall. Although no longer around, Ancient copies and literary descriptions have allowed scholars to produce fairly accurate reconstructions. The one here is from the Royal Ontario Museum in Toronto. Figure 5-46 PHIDIAS, Athena Parthenos, in the cella of the Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 438 BCE. Model of the lost chryselephantine statue. Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto.

14 14 Figure 5-45 Plan of the Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, with diagram of sculptural program (after Andrew Stewart), 447– 432 BCE. Basic layout of all of the FRIEZES on the Parthenon… FRIEZES are decorative stone engravings that usually illustrate an event of story… also known as RELIEFS.

15 The TEMPLE of ATHENA NIKE Nike means "Victory" in Greek, and Athena was worshiped in this form, as goddess of victory, on the Acropolis. Her temple was the earliest Ionic temple on the Acropolis. Here the citizens worshipped the goddess in hope of a prosperous outcome in the long war fought on land and sea against the Spartans and their allies. The Temple of Athena Nike was an expression of Athens' ambition to be the leading Greek city state in the Peloponnese. Artist’s Rendering of what the Temple of Athena Nike probably looked like in it’s prime. -Designed by Killikrates, who worked with Iktinos on the Parthenon and perhaps was responsible for the Ionic elements of that Doric temple) -The temple is amphiprostyle with four columns on east and west sides -Stands on what used to be a Mycenaean bastion near the Propylaia and greets all visitors entering Athena’s great sanctuary. - References the victory over the Persians -Part of the frieze is devoted to a representation of the decisive battle at Marathon that turned the tide against the Persians. -Around the building at the bastion’s edge, was a parapet decorated with exquisite reliefs. -Nikes image is repeated dozens of times including a relief that shows her adjusting her sandal.

16 16 Figure 5-55 KALLIKRATES, Temple of Athena Nike (looking southwest), Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 427–424 BCE.

17 17 Figure 5-56 Nike adjusting her sandal, from the south side of the parapet of the Temple of Athena Nike, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 410 BCE. Marble, 3’ 6” high. Acropolis Museum, Athens. -An awkward posture that the artist rendered elegant and graceful -Carries the style of the Parthenon pediments and created a figure whose garments cling so tightly to the body they seem almost transparent -Revels simple beauty of female body -Drapery folds form linear patterns of abstract design - Work personifies victory CLASSICAL GREECE HUMAN BODY IN ART

18 The ERECHTHEION Built between BC, the Erechtheion is situated on the most sacred site of the Acropolis. It is said to be where Poseidon left his trident marks in a rock, and Athena's olive tree sprouted, in their battle for possession of the city. Named after Erechtheus, one of the mythical kings of Athens, the temple was a sanctuary to both Athena and Poseidon. The south is the Porch of the Caryatids, the maiden statues which the originals are now in the Acropolis Museum. (One of the 6 is still part of the Lord Elgin marbles collection in the British Museum.) -In honored Athena and housed the ancient wooden image of the goddess that was the goal of the Panathenaic Festival process. -Has an asymmetrical plan in the Ionic order. -Unique for a Greek temple and the antithesis of the simple and harmoniously balance plan of the Doric Parthenon. -Irregular form reflected the need to incorporate the tomb of Kekrops and other pre-existing shrines, the trident mark and the olive tree into a single complex -Architect also had to struggle with uneven terrain. -As a result the structure has four sides with very different character, and each side rests on a different ground level

19 CARYATIDS (Greek columns shaped like women… In Egypt, they had similar columns of MEN called ATLANTIDS. These ladies are seen on the Porch of the Maidens at the Erechtheion.)

20 20 Figure 5-65 LYSIPPOS, Apoxyomenos (Scraper). Roman marble copy of a bronze original of ca. 330 BCE, 6’ 9” high. Musei Vaticani, Rome. Apoxyomenos, LYSIPPOS -Established a different canon of proportions from that of Polykleitos -Bodies more slender -Heads are roughly 1/8 th of the body height rather than 1/7 th -Breaks down the dominance of the frontal view and encourages the viewer to look from multiple sides Figure 5-40 POLYKLEITOS, Doryphoros (Spear Bearer). Figure 5-65 LYSIPPOS, Apoxyomenos (Scraper). COMPARE/CONTRAST

21 21 Figure 5-83 ALEXANDROS OF ANTIOCH-ON-THE-MEANDER, Aphrodite (Venus de Milo), from Melos, Greece, ca. 150–125 BCE. Marble, 6’ 7” high. Louvre, Paris. -Larger than life size statue -More overtly sexual than the Knidian Aphrodite -Goddess has slipping garment to tease the spectator -Left hand hold the apple Paris awarded her when she was judged most beautiful Much more sensual than the nude Venus by Praxiteles enven though she is more modestly covered. One of her hands held the drapery to keep it from “falling”, designed to “tease” the spectator

22 22 Figure 5-88 ATHANADOROS, HAGESANDROS, and POLYDOROS OF RHODES, Laocoön and his sons, from Rome, Italy, early first century CE Marble, 7’ 10 1/2” high. Musei Vaticani, Rome. -Hellenistic style lived on in Rome -Statue of sea serpents attacking Laoccon and his two sons -The three Trojans struggle to free themselves from the grip of the serpent -Laocoön and his two sons writhe and struggle, caught in the grip of the serpents that wind among their limbs. -The father's large size, powerful musculature, and wild hair and beard contrast with his smaller, smoother-limbed sons. Notice the torment & anguish on their faces


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