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Harappan and Indus Valley Civilization By Tori Olive and Amy Johnson.

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Presentation on theme: "Harappan and Indus Valley Civilization By Tori Olive and Amy Johnson."— Presentation transcript:

1 Harappan and Indus Valley Civilization By Tori Olive and Amy Johnson

2 Geography Located in present- day Pakistan along the Indus River Mountainous regions west of the river Abundant precipitation and humidity

3 Migration Nomads settled in region west of the Indus River on the Pakistan/Iran border They moved eastward to the Indus River at Karachi Indo-Aryans migrated to Harappa during 2000 BCE They shifted from North Western South Asia to the Ganges River and South Asia

4 Population The projected population for the entire region is between one and five million (6 people per square kilometer) Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa combined had a population of 150,000 The total urban population was 250,000 It’s hypothesized that a population increase in 3000 BCE is what lead the settlements on the Pakistan/Iran border to migrate towards the Indus River It’s also hypothesized that the general population of the civilization decreased when the Aryans invaded

5 Trade The Harappan civilization had active trading with Sumer, Mesopotamia, Afghanistan, Persia, Africa, Central Asia, and throughout the Arabian Gulf Traded lumber, copper, gold, ivory, beads, shells, pottery, turquoise, cotton, grain, and livestock For transporting materials they used pack animals, river boats, and bullock carts

6 Agriculture Driven by horticultural endeavors Massive granaries stored cereal crops and rice Grew mustard, sesame seeds, and dates Several species of animals were domesticated, such as camels, cats, dogs, goats, sheep, and buffalo

7 Social, Gender, and Family Structure Most of the civilization was urban and mercantile Simplistic lifestyle, few material goods No distinct social classes The powerful had many resources Like most early civilizations, the Indus River Valley was dominantly patriarchal Men were the head of the household Women and children did nothing unless their husband or father gave them explicit permission

8 Disease Bone samples show few signs of disease or malnourishment It’s predicted that there were minimal gastrointestinal and similar infections due to high standards of hygiene The occasional skull showing cranial lesions hint that people may have had iron deficiencies and subsequently got chronic anemia

9 Military There is no hard evidence of military activity, although the cities did have fortifications A theory about the disappearance of the Indus River civilization is that war-like Aryans and Indo-Europeans invaded in 1700- 1500 BCE

10 Weaponry Knives, spears, and arrowheads were used, although this society was peaceful Weapons were crafted from copper and bronze, but never iron

11 Government Harappa was the capital of its province Individuals with important resources had most power (merchants, ritual specialists, etc.) Unified with extreme organization High regulation; streets were crafted from a rectangular grid pattern Political structure was weakened by unknown forces and then killed by invasion from Eurasia Governed through control of trade and religion Rulers showed status through seals and fine jewelry

12 Art and Technology 1 st standardized system of weights and measure Dancing, painting, pottery, modeling, weaving, and metalworking Carved copper seals Advanced architecture Very small, intricate sculptures Beautiful crafts made of bronze, gold, silver, ivory, terracotta, and glazed ceramics

13 Religion Bath remains in Mohenjo- Daro suggest that cleansing rituals might have been practiced Archeological expeditions have uncovered figurines of holy animals (bulls) and women Special emphasis placed on fertility and earth as the giver of life People believed in an after- life; dead were buried with amulets and pottery

14 Writing/Literature Pictographic script still not deciphered No relationship to any other writing system Writing vanished after the decline of the civilization Literature from the Harappan civilization has not been found They used a Dravidian language, which hasn’t been translated

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