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Chapter 1 The History of Engineering Professor: Dr. Miguel Alonso Jr.

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1 Chapter 1 The History of Engineering Professor: Dr. Miguel Alonso Jr.

2 Outline Introduction Getting Started The Beginnings of Engineering An Overview of Ancient Engineering Traveling Through the Ages Case Study: Two Historic Engineers The History of the Disciplines

3 Introduction In engineering, every new innovation builds upon existing ones Few innovations early on, but as time passed, innovations occurred more rapidly Today, almost happens daily History provides a big picture Before, during and after some of the greatest engineering problems ever faced

4 Introduction History is about people, not dates Insights about past engineering developments will keep you motivated You can relate your current work to prior work that has been done Engineers are Professionals and Leaders Need to understand the origins of the profession Provides insight as to how the greatest minds in history have tackled problems

5 Introduction As an engineer, it is your responsibility to understand the past and present state of the art, as well as keep studying throughout your career The study of history helps us understand what good qualities from the past are worth emulating

6 Definition of Engineering According to ABET (the accreditation board for engineering and technology)‏ “The profession in which knowledge of the mathematical and natural sciences, gained by study, experience, and practice, is applied with judgment to develop ways to use, economically, the materials and forces of nature for the benefit of mankind.” History helps us to interpret scenarios and to sort out the pros and cons of various options Solid knowledge of history completes our engineering education

7 Getting Started Prehistoric culture Did not have a grasp of mathematical principles nor knowledge of natural science as we know it today Many of their designs were built by trial and error Spear after spear, until they perfected it No written communication or transportation, so little info or innovation was exchanged Each group developed on its own

8 Prehistoric Culture Physical limitations of prehistoric cultures No written language Verbal language was limited No means of transportation No separate concept of education or specialized methodology to discover new things Hunting and gathering Improvement came about very slowly How does engineering impact each of these areas?

9 Computer Age We live in the computer age Answers to millions of questions are at your fingertips (The Internet)‏

10 Group Activity Analyze four events (one per person) that you consider to be engineering highlights and explain their importance to the progress of man. Each group can chose from the following areas: Prehistoric Man Egypt and Mesopotamia Greece and Rome Europe in the middle ages Europe in the industrial revolution The 20 th Century

11 Pace of History Rate of innovation is far more rapid than in the past Think of the first time you used a computer and think about using that computer today SO SLOW!!!! Old phrase, “Rome was not built in one day…” Engineering feats of the past often took several generations to accomplish Read the quick overview on pg 4 and comment

12 The Beginnings of Engineering Foundations of engineering came from our ancestors’ efforts to survive and to improve their quality of life They looked around their environment and saw areas where life could be made easier and more stable Hunting, fishing, building better shelters Day to day survival

13 The earliest days As life became more complicated, collections of families became communities, the need grew to look into new areas of concern Power struggles Acquisition of land Religious observance, etc. Name some cultures that still live in this way today

14 Egypt and Mesopotamia As cities grew, people who showed special aptitude in certain areas were identified and assigned certain tasks This was a scientific breakthrough in itself! Labeling and grouping Dedicated time and resources for development This created the first real engineers

15 Between 4000 and 2000 B.C. Egypt and Mesopotamia were the focal points for engineering Stone tools Copper and bronze were perfected Led to plows for farming and settling Wheel, sailboat, methods of writing Immediately improved the way of life

16 During the construction of the pyramids, the number of engineers required was massive Engineering dealt with Dimensions and fit of the stones Transportation of the stones Security (against grave robbers)‏

17 The Stepped Pyramid of Sakkara (2700 BC)‏ Imhotep, chief engineer to King Zoser

18 The great pyramid of Khufu (2500 BC)‏ Link: , &spn= , &t=h&z=16&om= , &spn= , &t=h&z=16&om=1

19 Egyptian engineers used simple tools and with great accuracy, insight and technical rigor built the pyramids The great pyramid of khufu is the larget masonary structure every built Base: 756 feet on each side Height: 480 feet Casing blocks of limestone were attached to all four sides Casing blocks ~ 15 tons Read the excerpt on page 7

20 Overview of Ancient Engineering Guide from 2000 B.C. to the Present The temples of Greece Iktinos in Athens around 447BC and completed around 438BC Read excerpt on pg 8 Roman Road and Aqueducts Roman Road, the Appian way, began around 312 BC Connected Rome and Capua, 142 miles, and eventually reached Brundisium in southern Italy (360 miles)‏ 29 major roads eventually connected Rome to the rest of the empire

21 The great wall of china 220BC during the Ch’in Dynasty Built by Emperor Shih Huang Ti to repel mongolian invaders The emperor, and his general Meng T’ien functioned as engineers, even though this was not their primary role 3080 miles in length originally, currently 1700 miles

22 Classwork Case Study: Two Historic engineers Leonardo Davinci List four interesting facts Study some of his inventions and draw conclusions on how these works influenced later inventions or innovations Guttenberg What was the first book to ever be printed? What is the most significant impact to the engineer?


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