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OBJECTIVES Learn how people lived in Ancient Sparta

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2 OBJECTIVES Learn how people lived in Ancient Sparta
Discover some results of the Persian invasion of Greece Understand the conflicts that the Athenian empire faced

3 KEY TERMS Sparta – a city state in ancient Greece
Helots – in ancient Sparta, the term for slaves who were owned by the state Peloponnesian War – war fought between Athens and Sparta in ancient Greece; almost every other Greek city-state was involved in the war Plague – a wide-spread disease Blockage – an action take to isolate the enemy and cut off its supplies


5 EARLY SPARTA In early days, Sparta similar to other Greek cities
In 600 B.C. wars inside/outside of the city led to changes in government and life Changed Sparta into powerful war machine Established one rule – Always put city’s needs above your own

6 LIVING IN SPARTA Life in Athens free and open
Life for citizens of Sparta the opposite - harsh, cruel Spartans tough, silent, grim Only area in which Sparta matched Athens was in army, military realms


8 EARLY SPARTA Early in history, Spartans conquered land around their city Turned the conquered people into helots – slaves owned by the city-states Helots farmed all Spartan land Spartans free to wage war However, helots far outnumbered Spartans

9 EARLY SPARTA However, helots far outnumbered Spartans
In fear of revolt, Spartans turned city into armed camp and treated helots harshly

10 GROWING UP IN SPARTA Life at the hands of the government
Only healthy children raised Wanted only healthy adults in society

11 The Glory of Ancient Greece
Athens and Sparta Chapter 7 – Section 2

12 GROWING UP MALE At age 7, boys left home to live in barracks with other boys and begin military training Training continued for next 13 years By age 12, boys had spent long hours practicing with swords/spears Owned one cloak and slept on thin mat


14 GROWING UP MALE Through rigid discipline, boys became superior soldiers When 20 years old, young men officially became soldiers and remained soldiers until 60 years old

15 GROWING UP MALE At age 30, men took place in assembly – council consisting of all male citizens born in Sparta Council approved decisions made by the council of elders, who, in turn, acted as advisors to the king


17 GROWING UP FEMALE Girls also trained and competed in wrestling/spear throwing Girls not expected to become soldiers However, Spartans believed that strong/healthy girls would grow into strong/healthy women who would bore strong/healthy children So, unlike other Greek women, Spartan women trained to exercise and build up strength


19 GROWING UP FEMALE Spartan women had somewhat better life than other Greek city-state women Allowed to own land, take part in business However, like Athenian women, had to obey males (fathers, husbands, brothers) Because men busy at war, women took on running farms & estates

20 SPARTAN ATTITUDES Spartans did not mingle with other Greeks
Not permitted to travel Looked down upon those desiring wealth/engaged in trade Lacked interest in arts However, Spartan warriors known for skill & bravery

21 SPARTAN ATTITUDES However, Spartan warriors known for skill & bravery
Spartan fighting force played key role in Greek wars against Persians who lived across Aegean Sea, east of Greece


23 THE PERSIANS INVADE Most Greek history tell of wars Greeks fought amongst themselves However in 400 B.C., Greeks put aside their differences, joined forces to defend their peninsula against Persia.


Cyrus the Great had founded the Persian Empire in the mid-500s B.C. Cyrus and the rulers who followed him extended the original empire By 520 B.C., Persians had gained control of Greeks colonies on the west coast of Asia Minor



28 BATTLE AT MARATHON In 490 B.C, force including thousands of Persians landed in Greece Persian soldiers gathered at Marathon about 25 miles north of Athens The Athenians hastily put together small army but Persians outnumbered them 2:1 For several days, armies stared tensely at each across the plain of Marathon

29 BATTLE AT MARATHON Without warning, Athenians rushed Persian who were overwhelmed at furious unexpected attack By one (probably exaggerated) account, 6,400 Persians and 192 Athenians were killed However, true that in short time, this time this tiny state had defeated the giant that had come to destroy it


31 LEGEND OF MARATHON Stories say that after battle at marathon, Athenians sent fastest runner to tell people of Athenian’s victory. With chest heaving runner covered the distance to the city and shouted to the people “Rejoice! We have won.” Then, he dropped dead Actual distance from marathon to Athens 25 miles; today’s marathons 26 miles in honor of legend


More battles with Persian followed As common enemy, Persia distracted Greek city-states from fighting one another Briefly united, Greece drove away Persians

Victory over Persians increased Greeks’ sense of own importance Thought gods favored them Athens emerged from war as move powerful city-state Influence spread over eastern Greece.

Athens joined other city-states in Delian League (name after island of Delos, where leagues treasury kept) In time, these cities treated more as subordinates to Athens and not like allies Athens came to dominate league and used it to create its own empire

Ironically, while Athens expanding empire and forcing other city-states to bow to its will, Athens came to champion political freedom at home Athens did support democratic groups within other city-states, but focus on freedom for its people Years following Perisan Wars were Golden Age of Athens - Chapter 6

Athens may have been democracy at home but it began to act unfairly toward other city-states. Early on allies paid tribute to Athens to protect them if Persia caused more trouble Later, Athens moved treasure from Delos to Athens and used money intended to defend allies, to build Parthenon and finance other projects.

38 PELOPONNESIAN WAR People began to fear & resent Athen’s power
Looked to Sparta, who had not joined alliance for protection To counter Delian League, Sparta formed Peloponnesian League, named after Peloponnesus, the southern Greek peninsula where Sparta located Sparta and allies fought Athens and allies

39 Thus began the Peloponnesian War which lasted for 27 years

40 PELOPONNESIAN WAR Athens at great disadvantage in war
Sparta, located inland, could not be attacked from the sea Spartans had to march north to attack Athens by land


42 PELOPONNESIAN WAR When Sparta invaded Athens, Pericles let people from surrounding countryside move inside city walls Overcrowded conditions led to plague Plague lasted 5 years and killed 1/3 of the people, including Pericles Power struggle of those who sought to take Pericles’ place resulted in further destabilization of the government.


44 THE FALL OF ATHENS Athens never recovered from its loses during the plague Worse yet, Sparta allied with Persia In 405 B.C, Spartans and Persians staged blockade to cut off Athens's supplies Spartans but off harbor for food shipments Athenians, starved and decimated, surrendered in 404 B.C.

45 THE FALL OF ATHENS Athenians, starved and decimated, surrendered in 404 B.C. Victorious Spartans knocked down wall of Athens Destroyed navy and empire Athens never dominated Greek world again



Chapter 7 Section 3

49 OBJECTIVES Learn how King Philip of Macedonia came to power and how Alexander the Great built his empire Understand what role the conquests of Alexander the Great played in spreading Greek culture

50 Key Terms Barbarian – person who belongs to a group that others consider wild Assassinate – to murder for political reasons Alexander the Great – king of Macedonia; conquered Persia and Egypt and invaded India Hellenistic – describing Greek history or culture after the death of Alexander the Great, including the three main kingdoms formed by the breakup of Alexander’s empire

51 YOUNG ALEXANDER Son of King Philip of Macedonia
Fine and eager student who wanted to learn as much as he could, especially about ideas and deeds of Greeks Alexander thought of himself as Greek and spoke Greek language However, people to the south did not accept Macedonian’s as Greeks

52 YOUNG ALEXANDER Alexander’s tutor was Greek philosopher Aristotle
Aristotle taught Alexander Greek literature, philosophy, science Aristotle passed on strong feelings that Greeks were superior people who deserved to rule Alexander’s role model was Achilles, hero of Homer’s Iliad Alexander vowed to visit site of ancient Troy and lay wreath on tomb of his hero


54 PHILIP COMES TO POWER Before Philip came to power, Macedonia week & divided Philip united Macedonia, formed alliances with Greek city-states by bribing…or threatening them Built army even stronger than Sparta’s With this, Philip captured one city-state after another

55 PHILIP COMES TO POWER Demosthens (dih MAHS thus neez), who was master of elocutions (art of public speaking) tried to warm Athenians of danger to the north “He is always taking in more, everywhere casting his net round us, while we sit idle and do nothing. When, Athenians, will you take the necessary action? What are you waiting for”

56 PHILIP COMES TO POWER In 338 B.C, Athens and Thebes at last joined forces to try to stop Philip, however they were too late Philip gained control of all of Greece

57 PHILIP COMES TO POWER Like predecessors, Philip considered himself Greek Philip dreamed of conquering rich city-states of Greece Accomplished this with combination of diplomacy & military force

58 Alexander Builds an Empire
After conquering Greece, Philip planned to attack Persia but was instead assassinated by a rival At age 20, Alexander becomes king

59 Alexander’s Conquests
Although young, Alexander already experienced solider First invaded Persian Empire Forged ahead to Asia Minor, Judea, Egypt, Babylon & Persian Empire then crossed Indus River into India

60 Alexander’s Conquests
All this happened within 11 years Established cities wherever he went Named many after himself (Alexandria, Alexandropoulos, etc.)


62 Alexander’s Last Battle
Alexander’s troops battle weary and refused to go further than Indus River Alexander not happy, but agreed to turn back Got as far as Babylon and died of fever in 323 B.C at age of 33 His many conquests spread Greek culture far and wide

63 Greek Culture Spreads Death of Alexander = Death of Empire
50 years & disorder resulted in split of kingdoms with one commander in charge of each 1 Greece & Macedonia 2 Egypt 3 Persia

64 Greek Culture Spreads 100 years of fighting amongst themselves and their descendants followed All attempting to amalgamate (ding-ding) and take over Alexander’s previous empire

65 Greek Culture Spreads Many Greek soldiers remained in new kingdoms
Traders, artisans followed, further spreading culture

66 Hellenistic Kingdoms Hellenistic
Comes from word Hellas, name Greek’s gave their land Describes Greek history & culture after earth of Alexander the Great

67 The Hellenistic Kingdoms
Alexander left defeated cultures in tact Hoped local culture would mix with Greek Did not happen in Hellenistic kingdoms Cities of Hellenistic Kingdoms modeled after Greek cities Greek kings, Greek leaders, Greek agoras, Greek temples, Greek theater, Greek language etc.

68 Greek Culture in Egypt Greatest of Hellenistic cities Alexandria in Egypt founded 332 B.C Alexandria became capital of Egypt, grew famous for trade & business

69 Learning Capital of Greek World
Alexandria boasted largest library in world, with half million scrolls Scholars and writers from all over traveled to use library


71 Math & Science Math & Science flourished in Alexandria
Branch of math called Geometry developed by mathematician name Euclid Started with basic mathematical laws then wrote step by step proofs of additional principles to help explain qualities of figures including squares, cubes, angles, triangle's cones

72 Eratosthenes Many Hellenistic scientists knew Earth was round
Scientist named Eratosthenes even calculated distance around earth and came up with result very close to today’s estimation

73 Aristarchus Scientist who rejected idea that is Earth center of universe Believed sun center and earth revolved around it Idea did not catch on and scientists continued with Earth-centered universe until A.D. 1500s

74 Archimedes Discovered concept of pulleys & levers to lift heavy objects Boasted “Give me a lever long enough and a place to stand on, and I will move the Earth.”

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