3The Spartan People Expert warriors At the age of 20 named fully fledged warriorsKnew only one home and family, the barracks and their unitGirls also given rigorous training to become mothers of healthy childrenWomen regarded as most beautiful in all Hellas and as tough in spirit as menSpartan people freest in all GreeceMother to son “Come back with your shield or on it”
4Training for Spartan Soldiers Training started at age 7Physical training was a mustTraining was harsh but effectiveFox TimeEach soldier learned absolute and unwavering loyaltyAlso learned to swim, jump, run, wrestle, box, and most importantly danceThought dancing helped in the movements of battle“Spartans do not ask how many, but where”
5Hoplites Heavily armoured infantrymen Wore bronze helmet, breastplate, and greaves (shin protectors)Each carried a hoplon, meaning a weapon, and a wide, heavy wooden shield reinforced with bronze“Hoplites” mean “man at arms”The main unit in a Greek armyHoplite training was based more on working in numbers than individualityForms phalanx
6Phalanx Line up shoulder to shoulder Held shield up with one hand and spear with otherPush spears between shieldsEach rank does thisMinimum 7 ranksEnemy sees a wall of shields and spearsOnce they met enemy, the men in the back would push forwardIf a man died on a spear, his body would be flung around until the battle is over
7Leonidas and Heroic Stand at Thermopylae A Spartan kingMade a last stand at Thermopylae to give Greek cities time to prepare defencesHad 300 Spartans and 7000 other allies against an army 20 times that sizeChose to fight in a mountain pass so the Persians couldn’t use their numbersFirst day, the Persian leader Xerxes sent in his regular troops who got butcheredSecond day, Xerxes sent in his best troops, “Immortals”, but they were also beaten backOn the second night, Greek traitor told Xerxes of a pass to get behind Spartan forceLeonidas learned of this and sent his allies awayRemained with his 300 Spartan bodyguardsFought in a tight circle so the enemy could not break their formation
8Leonidas died fighting and a fierce battle was fought over his body Persians pushed back four timesArrows finally killed last SpartansBody of Leonidas beheaded and crucifiedBravery still looked back on todayBritish held pass against German advance in World War II at Thermopylae but were surrounded and overwhelmedAbove: King Leonidas
9Brasidas431 B.C. Repelled an Athenian sea borne attack against Methone429 B.C. Elected high official425 B.C. Helped plan out assault against Athenians at battle of Pylos, severely wounded424 B.C. Thwarts an Athenian attack against Megara and due to his diplomatic and military skills, manages a successful expedition to Macedonia where he convinced them to break all allegiance to Athens422 B.C. Dies fighting at the battle of Amphipolis
10Amphipolis Brasidas shows commanding genius Athenian commander sent a force Brasidas knew he couldn’t beatBrasidas waited until commander told his men to head back to the base, thinking Brasidas won’t fight himBrasidas charges out into an unorganized Athenian army, causing heavy casualty’s and making the army fleeThe Spartans lost only 9 men, 1 of whom was Brasidas
12What was the Persian War? The war was fought between Greece and PersiaConsisted of 11 major battles from 492 B.C.E to 449 B.C.EThe battles of Marathon and Salamis were considered to be the most decisive ones in the history of the Persian/Greek war.Battle of Marathon took place on September 12, 490 B.C.EMilitiades and Datis who led them to victory led the Greek armyBattle of Salamis took place in 480 B.C.EGreek army led by Themistocles, which was another victoryThemistocles was one of the most influential leaders in Greek historyThere were 4 main Greek and Persian commanders during the time of these battles.There were 2 different Greeks fighting the Persians, the Ionians and AtheniansThe war ended in a signing of a peace treaty
13Timeline of Events500 BCE - Ionian Greek revolt within Asia Minor (this is what started the Persian/ Greek war)490 BCE - Battle of Marathon (Decisive Greek victory over the Persians)481 BCE- Greek League (Greek league against Persia, with Sparta in charge of the army, and Athens, the navy.)480 BCE- Battle of Thermopylea (Persian victory)479 BCE- Battle of Salamis and Plataea (Salamis was a naval victory for the Greeks and Plataea was the battle that ended the Persian invasion)479 BCE- Battle of Mycale (Another decisive victory for the Greeks)477 BCE- Aristides forms Delian League (Athens, in charge of the Delian League, went on the offensive to free the Ionian cities.)466 BCE- Battle of the Eurymedon River (The last Greek victory in the war)449 B.C. - Peace of Callias (Persia and Athens sign peace treaty)
14Conditions that Influenced the War Many Greek colonists set out from mainland Greece, evicted by the Dorians, and ended up in Ionia in Asia MinorThe Ionian Greeks came under the rule of the Lydians and King CroesusIn 546 BCE the Persians took over Ionia, leaving the Greeks under Persian ruleThe Ionian Greeks found the Persian rule oppressive and attempted a revolt with the help of the mainland GreeksMainland Greece then came to the attention of the Persians and war between them begunWith mainland Greece invading Ionia, now under Persian rule, created a lot of tension and anger causing both countries to fight back
15Effects of the Persian War on the Greek Empire Athenians felt that the Persian war was a defining moment in their historyThe victory of the war over Persia made Athens one of the strongest city- states in GreeceWealth followed with the power as Greece gathered lots of money and riches from the warMany states started looking towards Athens for help opposed to SpartaThe alliances that Athens made after the victory as well as the Delian league would catapult it into immense powerThis power made Athens the cultural center of the Greek worldThe Spartans grew increasingly frightened of Athenian power and suspicious of their intentionsAlthough Athens had this great amount of power, it would also cause their downfallThis would eventually lead to the Peloponnesian war
16Themistocles Born in 524 BCE and died in 460 BCE He was the son of NeoclesAthenian general and statesmanOne of the Greeks best military commandersCommanded the Athenian fleet at the battle of SalamisConvinced the Athenians to strengthen and expand the Greek navy, which eventually led to the victory at SalamisThe navy grew from 70 to 200 shipsHe had the harbors fortified as wellFunding for this came from the new silver mines and the total money used came out to about sixty million dollars
17After the death of Militiades, Themistocles gained a sufficient amount of power and did great things to GreeceHe had Piraeus made into a harbor/fortress for AthensAthens thus became the finest trade center in GreeceThemistocles was considered a heroHowever with the passage of time he became less popular and resentedIn 471 BCE, he was ousted and retired to Argos where Artaxerxes I, king of Persia, welcomed him
18The Battle of Marathon Took place in Marathon, Greece Took place on September 12, 490 BCEThe first victory over the PersiansLed by Militiades and DatisAthens army was about one third the size of the PersiansThe Athenian army consisted of 10,000 Athenians and 1,000 PlataeansThe Greeks managed to win by enclosing the Persians in a circleThe Persians had nowhere to run and were taken out by the onslaught of GreeksThe Greeks then marched back to Athens to celebrate their victory when they came across another Persian forceThe Greeks, exhausted and hungry, managed to fight off the invading Persian force and defend the city
20 What Was The Peloponnesian War? The Wars were fought between Athens and Sparta and their allies respectively.Athenians were lead by Pericles, but he died in the second year of the war from the plague that killed many of Athens’s population.There were two main Peloponnesian WarFirst Peloponnesian War was from BCE and the second war was from BCEThe first war ended with a truce. Athens would maintain their empire of the sea and the Spartans would maintain their empire on land. Athenians were very strong at sea, and the Spartans were strong on land. In the war, the Spartans out numbered the Athenians 2-1.In the second war, Sparta won and became the leading force in the region. Sparta’s victory lead to the fall, and eventual end of the great Athenian Empire.
21Timeline of Events 460-445 BC - First Peloponnesian War BC – Peace Treaty between Athens and Sparta was made. It dissolved after 14 years, even though it was supposed to last 30 years.431 BC- Second Peloponnesian War begins. This was the main and most significant of the two wars because it lead to the collapse of Athens and might of Sparta.430 BC- Plague in Athens which claims the life of Pericles (he died a year later in 429 BC), the leader of the Athenians in the first two years of the war. After he died, he was succeeded by Nicias.421 BC- the Peace treaty of Nicias was signed. This was treaty was signed because the sides thought they could wear each other down but since they couldn’t, they decided a treaty would be better and Sparta could keep the land it conquered and Athens could keep its allies and continental territories. Alcibiades was Nicias’ enemy in parliament and he convinced the Athenians to keep fighting.
22415-413 BC- The Athenian expedition to Syracuse, where they lost badly BC- The Athenian expedition to Syracuse, where they lost badly. After this, the Athenian Army was slowly crumbling because they lost a lot of their harbour and naval fleets. Spartans took advantage of the Athenian weaknesses and attacked.404 BC- Athens finally surrendered which marked the end of the great Empire of Athens.
24Conditions That Influenced The War Spartans were getting suspicious and fearful of Athens’s economic power and wealth and were not happy with the thirty year peace that was agreed to between them and AthensSeveral Greek states formed a Delian league in 478 BC in order to create and fund a strong navy with could be used against the Persians. Over the years, Athens converted the Delian league into an Athenian Empire and used the navy as their own. This increase in the Athenian military challenged the Spartans, as they were the sole military strength in Greece until then.Athens placed economic sanctions against Megara, an ally of Sparta.The Athenians had become power hungry and very arrogant and were ready to capture the Greek mainland which was home to Sparta’s allies and was their “turf”The growing hostility turned into a war when there was a insignificant event in the distant part of the Greek mainland which finally triggered the Peloponnesian War
25Effects of The WarThe Athenians slowly lost power and strength after the battle at Syracuse in 415 BC, and by 404 BC, the Athenian Empire had collapsedSpartans were the new strength and they restored democracy in 403 BCThe main effect of the War was the collapse of Athens but the reinstatement of Democracy under the Spartan rule.
26AlcibiadesAlcibiades was one of the most powerful and influential leaders of the Peloponnesian war.He was born in Athens in 450 BCHe was a close relative of Pericles and after his death from the Plague, Alcibiades succeeded Pericles and ruled under the same principles and as PericlesHe lead the Athenians in to battle at Syracuse, but had to leave because he had to stand trail for an act of vandalism.Ironic because he fled to Sparta when he was convicted for vandalism but disagreed with the King and moved back to Athens where he became a generalhis constant failure with the army and his losses for Athens in battles lead to his dismissal from the Army and his move back to Sparta for refuge.He was killed when exiting his burning home by a shower of arrows by the Spartan Army
27The Battle of Syracuse Took place in Syracuse, near Sicily in the fall of 415 BC.The goal of the Athenians was to expand the Athenian empire and deprive Sparta of a supply source by taking over Syracuse.Athenians laid a siege on Syracuse and built a wall around themSyracuse was about to surrender and give Athens their land when Spartans arrived with 2,000 men and counter attacked the Athenian armies.In the spring of 413 BC, the Athenians had lost their ships and tried to flee, but were forced to surrenderBoth Nicias and Demosthenes (the Athenian leaders of the battle), were executedThis was the beginning of the fall of Athens
28BibliographyBOOKSRoberts, Timothy R. Ancient Civilizations. New York: Michael Friedman Publishing Group, 1997.
29Bibliography Internet Sites Largent, Kimberly J. Leaders and Battle Database Nov <http://www.lbdb.com/TMDisplayLeader.cfm?PID=5399&WID=55>.Racial Nationalist Library. Leonidas the Spartan.. 6 Nov <http://library.flawlesslogic.com/leonidas.htm>.TMP TM. "Spartan Organization?" Topic. 15 Aug Nov <http://theminiaturespage.com/boards/msg.mv?id=50922>.Wikipedia Encyclopedia. The Peloponnesian War. 04 Nov Nov <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peloponnesian_war>.Gill, N S. Peloponnesian War Nov <http://ancienthistory.about.com/cs/peloponnesianwar/a/timepelopwar.htm>.Gormley, Larry. Leaders and Battles of the Peloponnesian War Nov <http://www.lbdb.com/TMDisplayWar.cfm?WID=55>.
30QUESTIONS Who fought in the Peloponnesian War? Athens and Sparta What was Sparta’s strength?Their armyWho was the main leader of the Greeks in the Persian war?ThemistoclesWhat started the Persian war?Ionian Greeks revolted against Persian ruleWhat was the purpose of the last stand at Thermopylea?To give Greek cities time to prepare defences. Do you think the last stand worked? Why?
31Your MissionYou are King Leonidas, you have decided to make a last stand against the invading Persians to give the Greek cities time to prepare the defences. Using “soldiers” provided, You will have 5 minutes to figure out the best strategy to defend the given area with the troops provided. After we review everyone's strategy, we will tell you whose was the best and why.REMEMBER: The Persian Armies attack in two waves. So be prepared for a double attack. They also have the use of Archers so be prepared for attack from the air.You have 5 minutes starting….NOW