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What environmental events? Very remote (in time) events {PAST} –Natural selection Semi-remote events {PAST} –Contingencies (respondent and operant)

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Presentation on theme: "What environmental events? Very remote (in time) events {PAST} –Natural selection Semi-remote events {PAST} –Contingencies (respondent and operant)"— Presentation transcript:

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3 What environmental events? Very remote (in time) events {PAST} –Natural selection Semi-remote events {PAST} –Contingencies (respondent and operant) Current events {PRESENT} –Presentation of stimuli (US, CS, S D, S  ) –Motivational & emotional operations

4 Chapter 20 Behavioral Chains

5 Behavioral Chain A sequence of stimuli and responses. Each response produces a change in the environment that acts as a discriminative stimulus (S D ) for the next response.

6 “….behavior does not occur as random strings of unrelated responses but in organized sequences, called chains, in which each successive response produces the stimuli, internal or external, that determine what comes next. And when the time arrives to initiate a new sequence of behavior, that, too, is signaled by a change in stimulus conditions.” (Dinsmoor, 1995)

7 Task Analysis A task analysis is –an analysis of complex behavior and sequences (chains) of behavior into component responses.

8 Eating Potatoes TASK ANALYSIS? 1.Pick up fork 2.Spear potato 3.Lift fork to mouth 4.Open mouth 5.Place fork in mouth 6.Close mouth 7.Pull fork from mouth

9 TASK ANALYSIS 1.Pick up fork 2.Spear potato 3.Lift fork to mouth 4.Open mouth 5.Place fork in mouth 6.Close mouth 7.Pull fork from mouth

10 Dual Functioning Chained Stimuli A stimulus in a behavior chain reinforces the response that precedes it. That stimulus also acts as an S D or operandum for the response that follows it.

11 Beh Pick up fork S r Oper. Fork in hand Behavior Put fork in potato S r /S D Fork in potato Dual-Functioning Chained Stimuli Behavior Raise fork S r /S D Fork raised S D Sight of potatoes Behavior Put potato in mouth

12 Dual Functioning Chained Stimuli A stimulus in a behavior chain reinforces the response that precedes it. That stimulus also acts as an S D or operandum for the response that follows it.

13 S r /S D Light on Behavior Pull chain Behavior Press lever S r /S D Dipper click Behavior Approaches dipper S r Water

14 After/S r /S D Light on Behavior After/S r /S D Behavior After/S r Water SD Before

15 Forward Chain The establishment of the first link in a behavioral chain, with the addition of successive links, until the final link in acquired.

16 Beh Pick up fork S r Oper. Fork in hand Behavior Put fork in potato S r /S D Fork in potato Behavior Raise fork S r /S D Fork raised S D Sight of potatoes Behavior Put potato in mouth Train this link first Train this link second FORWARD CHAINING

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18 Total Task The simultaneous training of all links in a behavioral chain.

19 Total Task Each one of the hand washing steps Physical guidance Verbal Instruction Praise Modeling Each one of the hand washing steps Training LinksTraining ToolsResults

20 Backward Chaining The establishment of the final link in a behavioral chain, with the addition of preceding links until the first link is acquired.

21 23 x ??? BACKWARD CHAINING

22 23 x ??? ??? BACKWARD CHAINING

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