Presentation on theme: "Promoting Higher-Order Thinking"— Presentation transcript:
1Promoting Higher-Order Thinking Toward a More Comprehensive Comprehension CurriculumPeter Dewitz;
2Toward a Conceptual Understanding of HOT What are the characteristics of High Order-Thinking?Describe some examples of High Order Thinking.Consider some non examples of Higher Order Thinking.Apply these ideas to the comprehension of Papa's Parrott
3Sources of a Higher Order Thinking Curriculum Education and Learning to Think, L. Resnick, 1987Teaching for Thinking, R. Sternberg & L. Spear-Swerling, 1996A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing, L. Anderson et al., 2001(B.Bloom the sequel)
4Characteristics of Higher Order Thinking - Resnick Involves nuanced judgment and interpretationConstruct new formulation of issuesImposing meaning, find structure in apparent disorderIs complex and total path to understanding is not visible
5Characteristics of Higher Order Thinking - Resnick It is non-algorithmic - the path or course of thinking can’t be spelled out in advanceIt yields multiple solutions and involves multiple criteriaDemands self-regulation and is effortful
6Social Requirements of High Order Thinking Higher Order Thinking develops when living in a community that values and practices such thinkingAccepts uncertaintyAccepts and rewards social risksQuestions authority - challenge the authority of the text and the teacher
7What HOT is not: According to Resnick Following known paths and routes to understandingBelieving that the meaning in text is apparent or “literal”Working to replicate the meaning of others - graphic organizer can lead to a conformity of thinking
8Problems in Resnick’s Formulation What Resnick means by reading comprehension includes many attributes of Higher Order ThinkingEmploying a broad set of knowledgeBuilding coherence among elements in a textMaking inferences, elaborationsMonitoring the constructive processIs reading comprehension HOT?
9A Reading Example of High Order Thinking - Resnick Reciprocal TeachingSelf-questioningGenerating inferences*Seeking clarificationSummarizingMaking predictionConducted in a safe supportive setting
10Teaching for Thinking: Sternberg, Spear-Swerling Triarchic Theory of Human IntelligenceCritical-analytic thinking - analyzing, judging, comparing, contrasting, examiningCreative thinking - discovering, producing, imagining, supposingPractical thinking - practicing, using applying, implementing
11Characteristics of Thinking: Sternberg, Spear-Swerling Analytical, creative and practical thinking are all thinking - no hierarchy is impliedEach of the three types of thinking has implications for reading comprehension and instruction
12Examples of Thinking: Sternberg, Spear-Swerling Analytic: Comparing and contrasting two character within a piece of literature or comparing and contrasting two pieces of literatureCreative: Constructing an alterative interpretation of a character’s motivation -going beyond the givenPractical: Applying character traits and motives beyond the text to life - elaboration
13Steps, if there are any, in High Order Thinking Deciding what is the problem or how to approach the text - allows for and encourages multiple interpretationsDefining the problem [the interpretation]The issue or theme that seems to be most important to the author may not be to the readerRealizing that problems [interpretations] are ill-structured - completing a graphic organizer may not lead to new insight
14Steps, if there are any, in High Order Thinking Solutions, understandings, arise when problems are considered in light of real life contexts.Realizing what information [prior knowledge] will be necessary to reach some interpretationsSolutions to problems [interpretations] depend on the context in which the texts are discussed.Realizing there is no one correct interpretation and the thinking process is complicated and messy..
15Social Requirements of Triarchic Theory Acknowledgements that there are no right answers.Teachers and students are both learners.The discussion is the end not just the means to the end.The creation of the solution [interpretation] is a critical part of the process of higher order thinking.
16A Taxonomy: Learning, Teaching and Assessing Knowledge Dimension - Factual, conceptual, procedural, metacognitiveCognitive Process Dimension - Remember, Understand, Apply, Analyze, Evaluate, CreateWe can bring different kinds of knowledge to bear to create outcomes in the different Cognitive Process Dimensions
17Cognitive Process Dimension The TaxonomyCognitive Process DimensionRememberUnderstandApplyAnalyzeEvaluateCreateFactualKnow.ConceptProceduralMetaCognitive
18The Taxonomy: When does Higher Begin Remember - not hereUnderstand - possibly here because it includes inferences and interpretationsApply - possibly here because students carry out a task and it can be new and creativeAnalyze - definitely here because attributing motives or point of view raises the level of an instructional experience
19The Taxonomy: When does Higher Begin Evaluate - definitely here because the reader can evaluate the themes and the methods of the writer.Create - definitely here because we may want the learner to use the same rhetorical devices in his or her own writings.
20Apply to Papa’s Parrot Knowledge - Cognitive Process factual and conceptual - narrative structure or genreconceptual knowledge of parent - child/adolescent relationshipsCognitive ProcessUnderstand - infer and interpret feelings and insights Harry and his father gain about each otherAnalysis - attribute the role of the parrot to the process of self-discoveryEvaluate the author’s rhetorical techniques
21Papa's Parrot: Applying Higher Order Thinking Strategy instruction develops the “required inferences”Strategies - self-questioning, clarifying, monitoring, summarizing - promote these inferences.Higher Order Thinking develops insights or interpretations that go beyond the required inferencesHigher Order Thinking is the disposition to develop these interpretations
22Papa's Parrot Required Inferences HOT Inferences Harry’s feelings for his fatherMr. Tillian’s feelings toward HarryCauses of Harry’s change in behaviorMr. Tillian’s new feelings.What Harry learns about Mr.. Tillian and howHOT InferencesIs Harry’s reaction to the parrot realistic?Why does the author use animals to bring meaning to peoples lives?Is the growing distance between parents and young adolescents inevitable?
23More HOT with Cynthia Rylant Why doesn’t Mr. Tillian simply tell Harry about how much he misses him? (Evaluation)Why does the relationship not change at home? (Evaluate)Compare the role of the animals in two or more of Rylant’s short stories. (Evaluate)Create a short story in which an animal helps people grow or attain some insight in some way.(Create)