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Promoting Higher-Order Thinking

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Presentation on theme: "Promoting Higher-Order Thinking"— Presentation transcript:

1 Promoting Higher-Order Thinking
Toward a More Comprehensive Comprehension Curriculum Peter Dewitz;

2 Toward a Conceptual Understanding of HOT
What are the characteristics of High Order-Thinking? Describe some examples of High Order Thinking. Consider some non examples of Higher Order Thinking. Apply these ideas to the comprehension of Papa's Parrott

3 Sources of a Higher Order Thinking Curriculum
Education and Learning to Think, L. Resnick, 1987 Teaching for Thinking, R. Sternberg & L. Spear-Swerling, 1996 A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing, L. Anderson et al., 2001(B.Bloom the sequel)

4 Characteristics of Higher Order Thinking - Resnick
Involves nuanced judgment and interpretation Construct new formulation of issues Imposing meaning, find structure in apparent disorder Is complex and total path to understanding is not visible

5 Characteristics of Higher Order Thinking - Resnick
It is non-algorithmic - the path or course of thinking can’t be spelled out in advance It yields multiple solutions and involves multiple criteria Demands self-regulation and is effortful

6 Social Requirements of High Order Thinking
Higher Order Thinking develops when living in a community that values and practices such thinking Accepts uncertainty Accepts and rewards social risks Questions authority - challenge the authority of the text and the teacher

7 What HOT is not: According to Resnick
Following known paths and routes to understanding Believing that the meaning in text is apparent or “literal” Working to replicate the meaning of others - graphic organizer can lead to a conformity of thinking

8 Problems in Resnick’s Formulation
What Resnick means by reading comprehension includes many attributes of Higher Order Thinking Employing a broad set of knowledge Building coherence among elements in a text Making inferences, elaborations Monitoring the constructive process Is reading comprehension HOT?

9 A Reading Example of High Order Thinking - Resnick
Reciprocal Teaching Self-questioning Generating inferences* Seeking clarification Summarizing Making prediction Conducted in a safe supportive setting

10 Teaching for Thinking: Sternberg, Spear-Swerling
Triarchic Theory of Human Intelligence Critical-analytic thinking - analyzing, judging, comparing, contrasting, examining Creative thinking - discovering, producing, imagining, supposing Practical thinking - practicing, using applying, implementing

11 Characteristics of Thinking: Sternberg, Spear-Swerling
Analytical, creative and practical thinking are all thinking - no hierarchy is implied Each of the three types of thinking has implications for reading comprehension and instruction

12 Examples of Thinking: Sternberg, Spear-Swerling
Analytic: Comparing and contrasting two character within a piece of literature or comparing and contrasting two pieces of literature Creative: Constructing an alterative interpretation of a character’s motivation -going beyond the given Practical: Applying character traits and motives beyond the text to life - elaboration

13 Steps, if there are any, in High Order Thinking
Deciding what is the problem or how to approach the text - allows for and encourages multiple interpretations Defining the problem [the interpretation] The issue or theme that seems to be most important to the author may not be to the reader Realizing that problems [interpretations] are ill-structured - completing a graphic organizer may not lead to new insight

14 Steps, if there are any, in High Order Thinking
Solutions, understandings, arise when problems are considered in light of real life contexts. Realizing what information [prior knowledge] will be necessary to reach some interpretations Solutions to problems [interpretations] depend on the context in which the texts are discussed. Realizing there is no one correct interpretation and the thinking process is complicated and messy. .

15 Social Requirements of Triarchic Theory
Acknowledgements that there are no right answers. Teachers and students are both learners. The discussion is the end not just the means to the end. The creation of the solution [interpretation] is a critical part of the process of higher order thinking.

16 A Taxonomy: Learning, Teaching and Assessing
Knowledge Dimension - Factual, conceptual, procedural, metacognitive Cognitive Process Dimension - Remember, Understand, Apply, Analyze, Evaluate, Create We can bring different kinds of knowledge to bear to create outcomes in the different Cognitive Process Dimensions

17 Cognitive Process Dimension
The Taxonomy Cognitive Process Dimension Remember Understand Apply Analyze Evaluate Create Factual Know. Concept Procedural Meta Cognitive

18 The Taxonomy: When does Higher Begin
Remember - not here Understand - possibly here because it includes inferences and interpretations Apply - possibly here because students carry out a task and it can be new and creative Analyze - definitely here because attributing motives or point of view raises the level of an instructional experience

19 The Taxonomy: When does Higher Begin
Evaluate - definitely here because the reader can evaluate the themes and the methods of the writer. Create - definitely here because we may want the learner to use the same rhetorical devices in his or her own writings.

20 Apply to Papa’s Parrot Knowledge - Cognitive Process
factual and conceptual - narrative structure or genre conceptual knowledge of parent - child/adolescent relationships Cognitive Process Understand - infer and interpret feelings and insights Harry and his father gain about each other Analysis - attribute the role of the parrot to the process of self-discovery Evaluate the author’s rhetorical techniques

21 Papa's Parrot: Applying Higher Order Thinking
Strategy instruction develops the “required inferences” Strategies - self-questioning, clarifying, monitoring, summarizing - promote these inferences. Higher Order Thinking develops insights or interpretations that go beyond the required inferences Higher Order Thinking is the disposition to develop these interpretations

22 Papa's Parrot Required Inferences HOT Inferences
Harry’s feelings for his father Mr. Tillian’s feelings toward Harry Causes of Harry’s change in behavior Mr. Tillian’s new feelings. What Harry learns about Mr.. Tillian and how HOT Inferences Is Harry’s reaction to the parrot realistic? Why does the author use animals to bring meaning to peoples lives? Is the growing distance between parents and young adolescents inevitable?

23 More HOT with Cynthia Rylant
Why doesn’t Mr. Tillian simply tell Harry about how much he misses him? (Evaluation) Why does the relationship not change at home? (Evaluate) Compare the role of the animals in two or more of Rylant’s short stories. (Evaluate) Create a short story in which an animal helps people grow or attain some insight in some way.(Create)

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