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A Sound Research Project – Linking Program Needs and Desired Outcomes Caile E. Spear, Dept. of Kinesiology, Boise State University

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Presentation on theme: "A Sound Research Project – Linking Program Needs and Desired Outcomes Caile E. Spear, Dept. of Kinesiology, Boise State University"— Presentation transcript:

1 A Sound Research Project – Linking Program Needs and Desired Outcomes Caile E. Spear, Dept. of Kinesiology, Boise State University cspear@boisestate.edu cspear@boisestate.edu Gayle Bush, Kinesiology & Health Promotion, Troy University Ping Hu Johnson, Dept of Health, Physical Education and Sports Science, Kennesaw State University Michele Pettit, Dept. of Health Education & Health Promotion, UW-La Crosse AAHPERD -March 17, 2010

2 Program Objectives: By the end of this workshop, participants will be able to: 1. Iterate steps in developing a research proposal 2. Write succinct research hypotheses 3. Identify the appropriate research design 4. Select appropriate statistical methods and analysis

3 Steps to Develop a Research Proposal

4 Decide what you want to do o Based on:  Interest  Knowledge and expertise  Available resources  personnel, equipment, materials, $$$, etc. Identify project goal(s) o What do you want to accomplish? o What is the problem that needs to be solved? Develop hypotheses

5 Conduct literature review o Search literature o Organize literature Select research design o Depends on type of research  Needs assessment, intervention, evaluation o Study Population vs. Study Sample  Sample selection Select statistical methods

6 Literature Review Subject/Title Search Author Search Identify possible articles review titles and abstracts Locate and obtain articles library, online, interlibrary loan Organize literature

7 o Provide background information  What has been done  What needs to be done - need for research  Why the need for research – justification/significance o Identify theory/theories to guide research o Assist with  Selection of research design and statistical methods  Selection or development of instrument for data collection  Development and implementation of intervention activities  Development and implementation of evaluation activities

8 Choosing a Theoretical Framework

9 Many health education projects are based on specific theories or models. A framework is critical in planning a health education or intervention project. Having a valid, reliable, and objective model gives a research study credibility and a basis for planning and evaluation.

10 Health Belief Model Constructs: o Perceived susceptibility o Perceived severity o Perceived benefits of action o Perceived barriers to action o Cues to action o Self-efficacy Example: For a person to adopt recommended physical activity behaviors, his/her perceived threat of disease (and its severity) and benefits of action must outweigh his/her perceived barriers to action.

11 Theory of Reasoned Action/Planned Behavior Constructs- Attitude Perceived behavioral control Subjective norm Example: Obese people who have a positive attitude towards exercise, feel they can exercise, and have friends thinking exercise is important, have positive intent and are more likely to exercise

12 Social Cognitive Theory Modeling Skill Training (reasoning) – psychomotor social skills (refusal skills) - behavioral rehearsal Self-Monitoring - a contract with oneself Contracting- contracting with others Include a reward Specific behaviors Goals Signatures Example- Smoking cessation support groups

13 Stages of Change Transtheoretical Model People progress through 5 levels based on readiness to change : Precontemplation Contemplation Preparation Action Maintenance Example- In adopting healthy behaviors (regular physical activity) or eliminating unhealthy ones (smoking, excessive alcohol intake), people cycle through 5 stages

14 Socio-ecological Model: Steps to a Healthier US and other community based health initiatives

15 The Precede-Proceed Model

16 Health Behavior Models 1. Health Belief Model http://www.healthierus.gov/steps/2006Slides/A2/hefelfinger.html 2. Theory of Reasoned Action 3. Theory of Planned Behavior http://www.etr.org/recapp/index.cfm?fuseaction=pages.TheoriesDet ail&PageID=522#condomUse 4. Social Cognitive Theory http://usaoll.org/mobile/theory_workbook/social_learning_theory.htm 5. Precede-Procede Model http://envirocancer.cornell.edu/obesity/intervention101.cfm 6. Socio-ecological Model http://www.ahrq.gov/clinic/uspstf07/methods/tfmethods.htm 7. Transtheoretical Model (Stages of Change) http://www.aafp.org/afp/20000301/1409.html

17 Hypothesis

18 Formulating the Hypothesis A Hypothesis is the expected result; It must be “testable” The study must be designed in such a way that the hypothesis can be either supported or refuted.

19 Research Hypothesis The anticipated outcome of a study or experiment Must be based on some theoretical construct, or on results from previous studies, or perhaps on the researcher’s past experience and observations For example: o “Children who participated in a 6-wk pedometer-based intervention have higher daily step counts than children in the control group.”

20 Hypothesis Testing A scientific process that examines a hypothesis against an alternative hypothesis using appropriate statistical reasoning. Through the hypothesis testing, we infer the findings from a sample to the population (i.e., inferential statistics). o Using our sample statistic, we want to make a conclusion about what is happening in the population.

21 Sampling

22 Study Population vs. Study Sample Study Population: o share a common characteristic (age, sex, health condition) Study Sample - a subset of the study population Sampling - methods of selecting a study sample o Probability sample - allows for valid generalization  simple - sampling unit (individual, natural group, etc.)  systemic - nth  stratified -proportional vs. nonproportional

23 o Non-Probability Sample - limited generalizability  Convenience  Volunteers  Grab samples  Homogeneous samples  Judgmental samples  Snowball samples  Quota samples

24 Research Design

25 Research Designs Non-experimental o No randomization o No comparison/control group Quasi-experimental o No randomization o Comparison/control group Experimental o Randomization o Control group Source: Windsor et al., 1994

26 I nductive vs. Deductive Reasoning Inductive Hypotheses are generated from specific observations and theories emerge Qualitative research Source: Babbie, 2001 Deductive A theory exists and hypotheses are tested using quantitative methods Quantitative research

27 Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research Qualitative Example: o RQ: What factors contribute to binge drinking among college students? Quantitative Example:  RQ: Are gender and Greek involvement predictive of binge drinking among college students?

28 Statistics

29 Descriptive vs. Inferential Statistics Descriptive Describe a data set: Demographics, Mean, Range, Standard Deviation, etc. Inferential Attempt to accurately draw conclusions about a larger population based on information collected in a sample.

30 Examples of Inferential Statistics Correlation Regression T-tests ANOVA

31 Correlation Represents the strength of the relationship or association between two or more variables from the same sample (values range -1 to 1) Example: o RQ: What is the relationship between height and weight?

32 Regression Used to predict a variable (dependent/ outcome) from one or more predictor (independent) variables Example: o RQ: Are attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control predictive of college students’ intentions to quit smoking? o This example utilizes the Theory of Planned Behavior which has been used to examine individual behaviors and develop programs.

33 “T” Tests (comparison of means) Used to draw conclusions/infer differences in means (averages) between two populations or sets of scores Examples o Repeated measures o Matched pairs o Post-test only between two groups with differing interventions

34 Pre-Post Test Examples Pre – post test for knowledge, fitness levels, attitudes, and specific behaviors. Examples: o Asthma 101 and Open Airways o Physical fitness: fall vs. spring o Attitudes and behaviors (the CATCH program related to diet and exercise)

35 Tying Pieces Together T test Examples

36 Example #1 Example: Evaluation of a 1-day advocacy training workshop for health educators Design: Non-experimental Research Question: Does a significant difference exist between participants’ knowledge of advocacy before and after the workshop? Methods: Pre/post-tests Statistical Analysis: Dependent t-test

37 Example #2 Example: Evaluation of a comprehensive sex education curriculum for 9th graders Design: Experimental Research Question: Does the prevalence of unintended pregnancy differ between students who complete a comprehensive sex education curriculum and students who complete an abstinence-based sex education curriculum? Methods: Post-tests Statistical Analysis: Independent t-test

38 ANOVA Used for more than two groups with repeated measures such as a pre-mid-post test, or numerous post tests after an intervention Example: 1. Pre-test ****Intervention-9th grade sex education curriculum 2. Post-test 3. Nine month follow-up test

39 ANOVA (Cont.) Example: compare four physical education classes with differing curricula or exercise programs Within-Group Variation–the amount of variation among observations within each group (class, school, gender, etc.) Between-Group Variation–the amount of variation between all the group means

40 Summary

41 HEDIR discussion on efficacy of abstinence program Issue-can results be replicated Why?-many programs, what works in our community Background of problem –Teen pregnancy –Variety of programs –Efficacy

42 Literature review -research-based, theoretically based, factual, developmentally appropriate, populations, short-term and long-term outcomes Research question -Students in program greater intent to remain abstinent vs regular program Operational definitions - type of sex, abstinence-only, abstinence-based Data analysis Results

43 Project Ideas Think-Pair-Share –Premise lit review & theory selection done Identify research question Generate hypothesis Sample Methods Data collection Data analysis –Who needs to be on board


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