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Chapter 10 Homo Sapiens and the Upper Paleolithic.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 10 Homo Sapiens and the Upper Paleolithic."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 10 Homo Sapiens and the Upper Paleolithic

2 Chapter Outline  When did anatomically modern forms of Homo sapiens appear?  What was the culture of Upper Paleolithic peoples like?  When and how did humans spread to Australia and the Americas?

3 Homo Sapiens and the Upper Paleolithic  By 30,000 y.a. populations in all parts of the inhabited world resembled modern humans.  People refined adaptations to local conditions, and expanded into new regions.  Biological consequences included reduction of the face to modern proportions, and the reduction of body mass.

4 Cultural Adaptations in the Upper Paleolithic  Tools took over cutting, softening, and clamping functions once performed by the teeth.  This resulted in a reduction in the size of the teeth and jaws.  Technological improvements reduced selective pressures that had favored massive, robust bodies.

5 Upper Paleolithic Tools  Pressure flaking was used to press off small flakes as the final step in stone tool making.  Burins were used to work bone, horn, antler, and ivory into fishhooks, harpoons, and eyed needles.

6 Upper Paleolithic Tools  Spear-throwers added to the efficiency of the spear as a hunting tool.  Nets made from the fibers of wild plants were used in net hunting.  Bow and arrow was invented.

7 Upper Paleolithic Art  Carvings in tool handles  Statues  Cave paintings  Bone flutes and whistles

8 The Spread of Upper Paleolithic Peoples  Expanded into regions previously uninhabited by their archaic forebears.  Colonization of Siberia began 42,000 y.a.  10,000 years later they reached the northeastern part of that region.

9 The Spread of Upper Paleolithic Peoples  60,000 y.a., people arrived in Australia and New Guinea.  They crossed at least 90 kilometers of water that separated Australia and New Guinea from the Asian continent throughout Paleolithic times.

10 The Spread of Upper Paleolithic Peoples  The first Americans may have come by boat.  They may have traveled between islands or ice-free pockets of coastline, from as far away as the Japanese islands and down North America’s northwest coast.

11 Major Paleolithic Trends: Tools  Tools became more sophisticated, varied, and specialized.  Tools were lighter and smaller, with a better ratio between length of cutting edge and weight of stone.  Tools were specialized according to region and function.

12 Blade Technique

13 Pressure Flaking  Two methods used for pressure flaking in which a bone, antler, or wooden tool is used to press rather than strike off small flakes.

14 Major Paleolithic Trends: Hunting  Tools were developed that exceeded other animals’ physical equipment: spear thrower, net hunting, bow and arrow.  Improved social organization and cooperation were important for survival and population growth.

15

16 Ancient Peoples Spreading to the Americas

17 Major Paleolithic Trends: Regionalism Due to two factors:  Perceived need to distinguish symbolically one’s own people from others.  The need to adapt to differing environments.


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