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Interactions in Populations Chapter 14. Habitat and Niche  Habitat All the biotic and abiotic factors in an area where an organism lives All the biotic.

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Presentation on theme: "Interactions in Populations Chapter 14. Habitat and Niche  Habitat All the biotic and abiotic factors in an area where an organism lives All the biotic."— Presentation transcript:

1 Interactions in Populations Chapter 14

2 Habitat and Niche  Habitat All the biotic and abiotic factors in an area where an organism lives All the biotic and abiotic factors in an area where an organism lives  Niche All the physical, chemical, and biological factors needed to survive All the physical, chemical, and biological factors needed to survive

3 Habitat and Niche Competitive Exclusion Principle Two species competing for the same resources One will be better suited than the other One species will be pushed into another niche

4 Habitat and Niche  Secondary Outcomes of Competitive Exclusion Niche Partitioning Niche Partitioning Dividing the niche so two species can shareDividing the niche so two species can share Evolutionary Response Evolutionary Response Divergent evolution could take place to allow two species to surviveDivergent evolution could take place to allow two species to survive

5 Habitat and Niche  Ecological Equivalants Similar species with similar niches in different geographical regions Sign of convergent evolution Emerald Tree Boa – South America Green Tree Python - Australia

6 Community Interactions Competition – when organisms try to use the same ecological resources Resources – any necessity of life Interspecific Competition Intraspecific Competition

7 Community Interactions Predation – one organism captures and feeds on another Predator Prey

8 Community Interactions Symbiosis – any relationship where two species live closely together

9 Community Interactions Mutualism – both species benefit

10 Community Interactions Commensalism – one species benefits the other is unharmed

11 Community Interactions Parasitism – one species benefits and the other is harmed

12 Population Density and Distribution  Characteristics of Populations Geographic distribution – the area inhabited by a population Population density – the number of individuals per unit area

13 Population Density and Distribution  Population Dispersion The amount populations are spread out in relation to one another The amount populations are spread out in relation to one another ClumpedClumped UniformUniform RandomRandom

14 Population Density and Distribution  Survivorship Curves Number of individuals surviving over time Number of individuals surviving over time Type IType I Type IIType II Type IIIType III

15 Population Density and Distribution  Type I Common among large mammals Low infant mortality Generally long life

16 Population Density and Distribution  Type II Birds, small mammals, some reptiles Birds, small mammals, some reptiles Constant threat of death Constant threat of death

17 Population Density and Distribution  Type III Invertebrates, fish, amphibians, plants High infant mortality rate

18 Population Growth Patterns  Population Growth – birth rate, death rate, or migration Immigration – the movement into an area Emigration - the movement out of a area

19 Population Growth Patterns  Exponential Growth – individuals reproduce at a constant rate  Under ideal conditions, a population will grow exponentially.

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21 Population Growth Patterns  Logistic Growth – populations growth slows or stops following a period of exponential growth Carrying capacity – the largest number of individuals that the environment can support Population Crash

22 Population Growth Patterns  Limiting Factors – something that causes population growth to decrease

23 Population Growth Patterns  Patterns of Population Growth Demography – the scientific study of human populations

24 Population Growth Patterns Demographic Transition – a dramatic change in the birth and death rates U.S., Europe, and Japan China and India

25 Population Growth Patterns Age Structure What does it mean if there are lots of older people? What does it mean if there are lots of younger people?

26 Population Growth Patterns  Future Population Growth Is the human population increasing? Will the human population continue to increase forever? What factors will cause the human population to slow?

27 Population Growth Patterns  Density-dependent factors – limiting factor that depends on population size

28 Population Growth Patterns  Density-independent factors – factors that affect all populations regardless of size Weather Natural disaster Seasons Human activities

29 Ecological Succession  Ecological Succession

30 Ecological Succession Primary Succession – new species grow where no soil exists

31 Ecological Succession Secondary Succession – a disturbance changes the existing community without removing the soil


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