Presentation on theme: "The Why and How of Effective Teaching, Learning, and Assessment in the CLIL."— Presentation transcript:
1 The Why and How of Effective Teaching, Learning, and Assessment in the CLIL Classroom Diana Foran Storer November 21, 2012
2 Discuss the following statements: A good definition of “effective” would be……..Effective teachers are born that way. Agree/disagree?If a new approach or activity works for Teacher A, it will obviously work for Teacher B. Agree/disagree?Teaching can/can’t be learned. Agree/disagree?Being a teacher is an on-going process requiring critical reflection and self-evaluation. Agree/disagree?
3 Effective Teachers are: Lifelong learners who are willing to explore new teaching strategies and methods as well as act on current research in the classroom.Effective teachers are not born, they are made after an enormous amount of hard work and dedication.A flexible and patient attitude is important not only for a teacher’s stress level but also for his/her students who expect him/her to be in charge and take control of any situation.
4 Effective CLIL Teaching is just Good Teaching Effective teachingEffective learningFormativeAssessmentIn this process, there has to be a plan, a “method in your madness” as Shakespeare tells us. Nothing is isolated; everything is related. Speaking, reading, writing, listening skills are not separate`areas, nor is content material separate from context: and this is all tied together with cognitive engagement. One doesn’t learn if one doesn’t think, make connections, relate experiences, ask questions, wonder why…..And how do we know if we as teachers/instructors are being effective , how do we know if the students are learning, progressing, thinking, wondering…?
5 GROUP WORK Match the statements with their corresponding explanations Discuss, and choose the 4 most important qualities for “Effecting Teaching”.
6 Three key instructional processes for effective teaching: A Method in your MadnessEstablishing where learners are in their learningEstablishing where they are goingEstablishing how to get there
7 How do we know they are learning? Testing: sets of questions or situations designed to get an idea of what a student knows or can do Assessment: a systematic approach for collecting information on student learning or performance Evaluation: interpretation of assessment data regarding quality, value, or worth of some response, product, or performance; usually based on multiple sources of informationWe can’t just talk about exams. The whole class is an “exam”. Our role as teachers is getting the message across so that the message becomes the fuel to drive our students to want to learn more, fire up their curiosity……make them think. If we can achieve this, we are effective.
8 We use different APPROACHES /KINDS of Assessment Summative: Evaluation at the end of a learning period to measure what a student has learned.Progressive/Continual: Running log of student’s productionPerformance: Assessment of performance on constructing a response, creating a product, or demonstrating applications of knowledge (research reports, oral presentations, posters, plays, experiments, recitals, art work; written work)
9 We use different APPROACHES /KINDS of Assessment Peer: Evaluation of students’ work done by classmatesSelf-assessment:Reflective process in whichlearners evaluate theirown work, progress,attitudes, production.
10 Peer, Group, and Self- Assessment Prompts: Did we finish up quickly today?Did we keep our voices down today?Did we pay attention and listen to each other?Did we concentrate on our tasks?Did we each have a chance to speak to the whole group today?Did I encourage another person today?Did I contribute an idea today?Did I listen well today?Did I sit still and work quietly today?Did I ask a useful question today?Can I explain what I learned today to someone else?
11 Traditional formats for testing learning: thinking process? Fill-in the blanks True/false Listening Comp. Oral interviews Multiple-choice Reading Comp. Yes/no questions Matching Writing (essays, compositions) Open-ended questions
12 OBJECTIVE: LITTLE COGNITIVE ENGAGEMENT. Easy to mark for the instructor SUBJECTIVE:REQUIRES DEEPER THOUGHT PROCESS. Increased difficulty for the instructorFill-in the blanks True/False Multiple choice Yes/no questions MatchingListening Comp: (inference) Oral Interviews Reading Comp: (synthesis, deduction) Writing essays Open-questions
13 Buzz word: Alternative Assessment Directly evaluates learners’ language skills and content knowledge through written and spoken production -peer, self, journals, portfolios, conferences, interviews- show a learner’s ability to use the language while talking/writing about the content: transmission of knowledgeAuthentic tasks to demonstrate learner abilityCommunication/ can-do rather than right/ wrong (CEF)Criteria set by teacher and learners (Rubrics)Offers students the opportunity to assess themselves; be responsible for their actions
14 In class feedback: Stoplight cards Green: I can explain this to someone else; no problem Yellow: I am confused; it would help me to talk about it Red: I do not understand and can not explain this yet
15 Are you following me? STOPLIGHT CARDS explain to your partner the difference between traditional and alternative assessment formats
16 Complete the sentence stems: Why do we test? We give tests so that….Tests provide teachers with…Tests help students…..All tests must…My opinion on tests is….I usually test my students by…..An example of one kind of good test is…
17 So, testing (from a teacher’s point of view)… Provides feedback to the student, identifying the strengths and weaknessesProvides feedback to the instructor on how well the message is getting acrossConducive to creating learning activitiesEnables judgment of performance (grade/degree classification) and promotionQuality assurance for the institution—external and internalA necessary evil!!
18 From the Four C’s of CLIL: Content, Communication, Cognition, and CultureCOGNITIVE ENGAGEMENT:* Sustained attention to a task that requires a mental effort* Making meaning, controlling one’s own thought processes: self-regulation* Learners make decisions, analyze, interpret, deduce, negotiate, discuss, organize coherently, research, collaborate on a team, debate, explain, defend and justify opinions and beliefs
19 Bloom’s Taxonomy: Cognitive Engagement Bloom’s for PEBloom’s forChemistry,Physics,BiologyBloom’s for Digital Tech
20 How we test in CLIL: Traditional +Authentic - Performance Summative and Formative Assessment: traditional formats in combination with “can-do” tasksProgressive Evaluation: A running log of participation, production, progress and quality performance of activities, tasks, projects…CLIL Assessment enhances learning by integrating foreign language + content areas and with students’ own lives, requires higher-order thinking skills, is performance based and criterion referenced (rubrics)
21 Don’t throw the baby out with the bathwater!!! Potential DevelopmentCurrent DevelopmentBeyond reach at presentCONTENT and LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING
22 Some ways to accommodate assessment in the CLIL classroom: Reducing response materials for content area testingProviding tests with adjusted (simplified) language (at first)Choosing key/main ideas for assessmentSimplifying directionsSupply word banks for tests, class workExtending time to complete testsAllowing students to respond orally (at younger ages) rather than in writing
23 Some ways…(cont.)Using portfolios to authentically assess student progressAt times, double grading students work; content (correct responses) and L2 grammar correctness (especially in compositions, narratives etc.)For writing, using Personal Error Correction ChartsUsing “I learned” StatementsCooperative Learning Activities
24 STOPLIGHT CARDS How do we test in CLIL? Can you explain?
25 Cooperative Learning Activities (Johnson and Johnson) Students promote each other’s learning by helping, sharing, encouraging efforts to learn.Individual accountability, developed in group/team work skillsPromotes listening to others, negotiating, asking for clarification, following directions, giving reasons for you opinions, argumentation skills, paraphrasing what others have said…
26 Think-Pair-Share Involves a three-step cooperative structure. First step, think silently about a question.Second step, pair up and exchange thoughts.Third step, the pairs share their responses with other pairs, other teams, or the entire group.
27 THINK: Name some reasons why studying foreign languages is important Pair: Compare your reasons with your partner’s. SHARE: turn around and see what the pair behind you thinks. Tell the class the reasons you agree on
28 Jigsaw RESEARCH/STUDY GROUPS ( MY VERSION) Groups with five students are set up.Each group is assigned unique material (content subject area).These “expert” groups decide what is most important, interesting, necessary to know/learn from what they have read.Then, one member from each expert group joins other “experts” to form new groups of 5 experts each.A final report, graph, table is written up with the data gathered from the 5 experts.The original groups meet again and compare what they learned while being “away”.
30 Pair Orals It is NOT a dictation.. Select short, informative articles students read for homework, prepare an oral summary of the main points;In the next class they “tell the story” of their article to their partnerThe partner takes notes while questioning, asking for clarification, negotiating meaningStudents switch roles;They write up a short summary (main points, most interesting fact..) of what their partner has said.It is NOT a dictation..Eye contact is encouraged to reduce the urge to read the text.
31 PAIR ORALS: student feedback sheet My name is ________________ and I listened to ____________________ She/he told me about/that…….I thought that………I was surprised that……I found the fact that …….very interesting.I didn’t know ……….and now I do! (Four skills are practiced/vocabulary acquisition/content knowledge increased….students challenged)Foran, D. “Teaching Technical English at the Tertiary and Professional Level: Content-Based Cooperative Learning under the CLIL Umbrella” p Diverse Contexts—Converging Goals: CLIL in Europe, eds.David Marsh/Dieter Wolff Peter Lang 2007, Frankfurt, Germany
32 Minute Paper/Exit Cards/3-2-1 Cards What was the most useful or meaningful thing you learned today?What questions remain in your mind as we end this session?What was the “muddiest point” for you today?Give an example…Explain in your own words….3 Things they learned from today’s lesson2 Questions they still have1 Thing they would like to learn more aboutTeachers compile the information, using this “pre- assessment” to prepare for the students’ next lessonFORMATIVE ASSESSMENT
33 Combine all forms with Formative Assessment On-going process to elicit evidence about student learningTo provide feedback to teachers and students about learningTo use feedback and reinforcement to adjust instruction and learning strategies in real timeClose the gap between the learners’ current state and desired goals (ZPD): From where they are now to where YOU want them to bePrompt reinforcementPrompt feedbackTask
34 Effective Formative Assessment: Feedback and Re-inforcement
35 The Four Levels of feedback Answers were right or wrong; directions to get more information Strategies used or could be used About student self confidence, self assessment “Good girl” “smart guy” “good job” “way to go”Feedback about the task Feedback about processing the task Feedback about self- regulation Feed back about the student as a person
36 Not just “GOOD!”, but why, and how it could be better General praise such as "Good job!" is not formative feedback; it is like a pat on the back: makes the learner smile, keeps up interest. It does not try to improve students’ performance nor move them along the learning pathway
37 The best feedbackFocuses on the qualities of the work and process or strategies to do the workRelates to the learning goal(s) and what might be useful nextDescribes the existing quality and/or needed improvement; not judgmentalIs positive and specificDraws attention to a student’s self-regulation or effort and level of attention
38 Three-pronged feedback commentary What was done well?What needs improvement?Specific suggestions for how to improveA reminder prompt draws attention to the learning goalA scaffolded prompt helps to focus on specific aspects of the learningAn example prompt gives suggestions or provides examples of possible improvements
39 Feedback from the students’ point of view ☺ Formative feedback addresses both the cognitve factor, understanding where they are and what to do next ☺ And helps develop a feeling of control over their learning, the motivational factor☺Tells me how my work corresponds to the criteria ☺ Tells me how I can improve ☺ Tells me the teacher cares (and has read my work)
40 HANDOUT: In what way can feedback be - Motivational (support, encourage) - Evaluative (measure achievment) - Descriptive-Formative (indicate how to improve)This kind of “descriptive” feedback is very different from “evaluative feedback”.
41 ☺ MOTIVATIONAL EVALUATIVE DESCRIPTIVE FORMATIVE 7.5/75% The goal is to make the learner feel good.Goal is to measure student achievement with a score or a grade.Goal is to improve student achievement by telling what steps to take in order to move forward in the learning process.Encourages and supports the learner.Feedback that is intended to summarize student achievement.Feedback that is intended to tell the learner what needs to be improvedDoes NOT give feedback specific to the learning goal.Does not give guidance on how to improve the learner’s reasoningGives specific guidance as to how to improve.“I really like how you completed the assignment.”Judgmental about the learningIs anecdotal☺7.5/75%“You described the digestive system nicely. Now go back and draw each organ as you explain the process from beginning to end.”
42 Stop Light cards:Can you explain the difference between descriptive feedback and evaluative feedback?Descriptive feedback is anecdotal, and provides students detailed, precise information about their progress toward the learning goal, and suggestions for next steps in learning.Evaluative feedback consists of a judgment about the learning, and is communicated as a grade, a mark or symbol.
43 FORMATIVE Feedback Strategies TIMING AMOUNT MODE AUDIENCEFeedback while they are still mindful of the learning target and still time for them to act on it Enough to know what to do, but not so much that it is done for them Commmunicate feedback message in the most appropriate way Reach appropriate students in groups, pairs; give specific feedback to whole class. But let them know that their learning is important to you
44 Handout: Group Activity on Timing, Amount, Mode, and Audience.
45 Sample Feedback comments: good or not so good Try harder! Explain better Your introduction really makes me want to read the rest. Your report is the best one in the class! Your report is better than the last one. You made it clear what you think about…..It would be even better if you included….Vague, try to do more of what? Explain what? Knows it was good and why Judgemental; does not tell st what is good Positive, plus constructive; small steps to improve…
46 Examples (cont.):The good stories we have been reading have a beginning, a middle, and an end. I see that your story has a beginning and a middle, just like those good stories do. Can you draw and write an ending? You have described the similarities between _____ and _____ clearly in this paper, and you have identified key differences. Work on illustrating those differences with concrete examples from the text. The ending of your story really bothered me because I felt like you had built up a completely different mood. (instead of “your ending is poor”)
47 Question promptsAim to ask more open-ended questions. Are you pleased with your work? Vs. How well have you worked? What do you think ...? How do you know ...? Is there another way/reason/idea ...? What do you think happens next ...? Why do you think that ...? Do you have a reason ...? How can you be sure ...? Where is there another example of this?
50 Close the gap between the learner’s “you are here” and the “final destination” Assessment is formative only if the information fed back to the learner is used by the learner in making improvements.To be formative, assessment must include a recipe for future action