Evidence for Evolution Evolution (the transformation over a long period of time from one species into another) is a fact.
Evidence for Evolution Evolution accurately and scientifically explains facts observed in the world.
Evidence for Evolution Evolution is a theory just like the sun- centered system of Copernicus and Galileo is also a theory. It took over 200 years for people to accept it, but we now know it is true.
What Are Fossils? Fossils are the naturally preserved remains, imprints, or traces of organisms that lived long ago.
What Are Fossils? Includes bones, shells, and footprints. Microfossils can only be seen under a microscope.
What Are Fossils? They determine: the relationships among organisms the approximate times when life first appeared on Earth when organisms became extinct
What Are Fossils? A paleontologist is a scientist who studies fossils.
How Are Fossils Formed? Decomposition (breaking down into substances that can be used by other organisms) is part of an organism’s life cycle.
How Are Fossils Formed? For an organism to become a fossil, it must be protected from decomposers, scavengers, and environmental factors.
Permineralization When substances inside the tiny spaces of dead organisms decompose, water seeps into the empty spaces and deposits minerals, and preserves them. This process, permineralization, forms a strong, rock-like fossil. Petrified Fossil
Replacement Only the hard parts of an organism are replaced by minerals in replacement. Only the shape of the original organism remains.
Carbonization When a dead organism is quickly buried under conditions without oxygen, the elements of the living tissue are removed, leaving behind just the element Carbon. A thin, usually black, carbon film remains and is compressed by sediment, preserving the image of the organism on a rock.
Molds and Casts With mold and cast fossils, no parts of the original organism remain. Molds are imprints from an organism, such as a shell or the skin of an animal. A mold looks like a hollow impression of the organism. CastMold
Molds and Casts A cast is created when molds fill in with sediment that hardens into rock. A cast looks like a stone 3D version of the organism. CastMold
Original Material Organisms preserved in materials such as amber, tar, and ice are called original material fossils. They are rare and provide much information because none of the hard or soft structures have been altered or replaced.
Original Material The 3 types are tar, amber (sap), and ice. Tar Amber (sap)Ice
What Do Fossils Tell Us? Much of the evidence for evolutionary relationships comes from fossils.
What Do Fossils Tell Us? Scientists also study fossils to understand some processes and rates of evolution.
What Do Fossils Tell Us? Fossils provide a record of different organisms that lived in the past.
Relative Fossil Ages Generally, younger fossils are in shallow sedimentary rock layers and older fossils are in deeper layers.
Relative Fossil Ages Fossils can be compared by their age relative to each other (relative age) and the changes to species can be documented.
Species and Environmental Changes The fossil record is a timeline showing all the known fossils and their placements in rock formations.
Species and Environmental Changes The fossil record is evidence of the evolution of plants and animals, and their extinction.
Species and Environmental Changes There are not always “transitional fossils” - a fossil that gives us information about a transition from one species to another.
Species and Environmental Changes
Not EVERYTHING gets fossilized, and many fossils are destroyed because of plate tectonics. This causes gaps in the fossil record.
Species and Environmental Changes It’s NOT like there is a video camera recording EVERYTHING. It’s more like a still camera taking snapshots.
Species and Environmental Changes Not a SINGLE fossil is in the wrong place and the wrong time. There are no rabbit fossils in the Precambrian time. If we did find rabbit fossils in the Precambrian time, we could disprove evolution.
Species and Environmental Changes Fossils provide evidence of how life and environmental conditions have changed throughout time.
Species and Environmental Changes Scientists use fossils to determine how organisms lived, what they ate, and what kind of environment they lived in.
1. What describes the deposit of minerals into the tiny spaces that have decomposed in an organism? Apermineralization Bdecomposition Creplacement Dmolds 6.1 Fossils and Evolution 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D
2. What describes the preservation of the impression of an organism if no parts of the organism remain? Acarbonization Breplacement Cmolds or casts Doriginal material 6.1 Fossils and Evolution 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D
3. What are the most commonly found fossils? Aoriginal material Bhard structures Csoft structures Dfootprints 6.1 Fossils and Evolution 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D
4. What does a paleontologist study? ADNA Bclassification of organisms Cfossils Dembryos 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D
5. What does the depth of a fossil in the rock layer tell us about the fossil? Ahow old it is Bhow it died Chow it evolved Dhow it lived 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D