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WHAT IS CRUSTAL EXTENSION AND WHICH GLOBAL LANDSCAPE FEATURES DOES IT GIVE RISE TO?

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Presentation on theme: "WHAT IS CRUSTAL EXTENSION AND WHICH GLOBAL LANDSCAPE FEATURES DOES IT GIVE RISE TO?"— Presentation transcript:

1 WHAT IS CRUSTAL EXTENSION AND WHICH GLOBAL LANDSCAPE FEATURES DOES IT GIVE RISE TO?

2 CRUSTAL EXTENSION Crust Astheno- sphere Upper Mantle

3 CRUSTAL EXTENSION

4 Crustal Thinning

5 CRUSTAL EXTENSION Crustal Thinning

6 CRUSTAL EXTENSION Crustal Thinning Crustal Faulting

7 DIVERGENCE. 1 Old Crustal Block

8 DIVERGENCE. 2 Block 1Block 2 Crustal Thinning & Faulting Large reservoir of liquid magma close to surface of crust

9 DIVERGENCE. 2 Active Volcanoes Long Deep Lakes Block 1Block 2

10 DIVERGENCE. 3 Block 1 Block 2 Crustal blocks moving further apart

11 DIVERGENCE. 3 Block 1 Block 2 Crustal blocks moving further apart Older volcanic rocks cooled, solidifies, contracts and adheres to blocks.

12 DIVERGENCE. 3 Block 1 Block 2 Crustal blocks moving further apart Active volcanicity still connected to reservoir in upper mantle Older volcanic rocks cooled, solidifies, contracts and adheres to blocks.

13 DIVERGENCE. 3 Block 1 Block 2 Crustal blocks moving further apart Older volcanic rocks cooled, solidifies, contracts and adheres to blocks. Active volcanicity still connected to reservoir in upper mantle. Sea invades long narrow inlet.

14 DIVERGENCE. 4 Block 1 Block 2 Crustal blocks moving further apart

15 DIVERGENCE. 4 Block 1 Block 2 Crustal blocks moving further apart Oldest volcanic rocks near edge of block.

16 DIVERGENCE. 4 Block 1 Block 2 Crustal blocks moving further apart Oldest volcanic rocks near edge of block. Younger volcanic further from block.

17 DIVERGENCE. 4 Block 1 Block 2 Crustal blocks moving further apart Oldest volcanic rocks near edge of block. Younger volcanic further from block. Active volcanicity still connected to reservoir in upper mantle

18 DIVERGENCE. 4 Block 1 Block 2 Crustal blocks moving further apart Oldest volcanic rocks near edge of block. Younger volcanic further from block. Active volcanicity still connected to reservoir in upper mantle Sea broadening, shallow water, volcanic islands in middle

19 DIVERGENCE. 5 Block 1 Block 2 Crustal blocks moving further apart

20 DIVERGENCE. 5 Block 1 Block 2 Crustal blocks moving further apart Oldest volcanic rocks near edge of block.

21 DIVERGENCE. 5 Block 1 Block 2 Crustal blocks moving further apart Oldest volcanic rocks near edge of block. Old volcanic further from block.

22 DIVERGENCE. 5 Block 1 Block 2 Crustal blocks moving further apart Oldest volcanic rocks near edge of block. Old volcanic further from block. Young volcanic near mid-ocean.

23 DIVERGENCE. 5 Block 1 Block 2 Crustal blocks moving further apart Oldest volcanic rocks near edge of block. Old volcanic further from block. Young volcanic near mid-ocean. Active volcanicity in mid-ocean.

24 DIVERGENCE. 5 Block 1 Block 2 Crustal blocks moving further apart Oldest volcanic rocks near edge of block. Old volcanic further from block. Young volcanic near mid-ocean. Active volcanicity in mid-ocean. Large ocean basin underlain by volcanic rocks symmetrically distributed

25 Block 1Block 2 EAST AFRICAN RIFT VALLEY Goma, Democratic Republic of Congo Rwanda

26 EAST AFRICAN RIFT VALLEY HIGHEST PEAKS IN AFRICA

27 EAST AFRICAN RIFT VALLEY nd and 3 rd DEEPEST LAKES IN THE WORLD

28

29 GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION OF EARTHQUAKES

30 03.02.b1 GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION OF VOLCANOES

31 Block 1 Block 2 Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Sudan and Eritrea, fit together like pieces of a jig-saw puzzle across either side of the Red Sea.

32 03.00.a1f

33 10.08.a4

34 Block 1 Block 2 Volcanic lavas have filled the rift on the African side (Afar Triangle), creating strategic choke-point between Somalia and Yemen! USS Cole 17 Died 39 Injured Aden, 2000 Former Yemeni President, Ali Abdullah Saleh Extinct volcano!

35 Block 1 Block 2 Suez Canal links Mediterranean and Indian Ocean via the Red Sea. Grandfather, Fred Mundy D.C.M. Suez – Jerusalem Aden: British controlled

36 GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION OF EARTHQUAKES

37 03.02.b1 GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION OF VOLCANOES

38 Pre-1967 Arab-Israeli War border of Israel THE WEST BANK SETTLEMENTS Jerusalem

39 GOLAN HEIGHTS (EAST BANK!)

40 ATLANTIC OCEAN

41 ICELAND

42 ATLANTIC OCEAN Ronald Reagan Margaret Thatcher

43 10.10.b1 BRITAIN EUROPENORTH SEA ARGENTINA FALKLANDS MALVINAS SOUTH ATLANTIC OIL AND NATURAL GAS

44 ATLANTIC OCEAN ST. HELENA ELBA

45 GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION OF EARTHQUAKES

46 03.02.b1 GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION OF VOLCANOES NB. THESEMUST APPEAR ABOVE SEA LEVEL TO BE PLOTTED!

47 10.04.a3 ATLANTIC OCEAN

48 10.04.a3 INDIAN OCEAN

49 10.04.a3 PACIFIC OCEAN

50 10.04.a3 SOUTHERN OCEAN

51 10.04.a4

52 THINK! TIME AND SPACE.

53 IIIIIIIVV FIVE ACT PLAY Length of Play = 2 hr 7 version of the play running over a period of 4 hrs

54 SEVEN THEATERS START THE PLAY AT RANDOM TIMES. SEVEN SPECTACTORS ARRIVE AT EACH ONE OF THE DIFFERENT THEATERS SIMULTANEOUSLY AND RECORD WHICH ACT THE PLAY IS IN. One in Act 1, 1 Act 2, 2 Act3, 2 Act 4, 1 Act 5 -: Roughly proportional to the lengths of time spent in each act. We can’t watch the whole play (ocean basin formation), but we can visit many ocean basins now and assume that they represent the lengths of time that the play would spend in each act if we were able to observe it over time.


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