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Reproductive and Somatic Effort in Dogwoods Week II Principles of Ecology BIOL 3060

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Review Life history An organism’s typical pattern of : Growth & Survival Reproduction Somatic effort Growth/survival Reproductive effort Phenotypic plasticity A single organism can have >1 phenotype Spigot Model Reproduction only when somatic is topped-off

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Age & Reproduction HO: The sunny side of trees growing on the edge of the forest will not have more flower buds per twig than on their shady side. HA: The sunny side of trees growing on the edge of the forest will have more flower buds per twig than on their shady side. Prediction: Individual life history is phenotypically plastic. Hypothesis 1

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Age & Reproduction HO: The number of flower buds per twig is not greater for trees in the sun than for those in the shade (forest interior). HA: The number of flower buds per twig is greater for trees in the sun than for those in the shade (forest interior). Prediction: Increased energy leads to higher reproductive investment. Hypothesis 2

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Age & Reproduction HO: Larger trees do not have more flower buds per twig than younger trees. HA: Larger trees have more flower buds per twig than younger trees. Prediction: Trees need to be a certain size before they reproduce; therefore, larger (older) trees should invest more energy in reproduction than smaller (younger) trees. Hypothesis 3

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H 1 : % flower buds is greater on the sunny than shady side of roadside trees T-TEST X 1 AVG % flower buds on the sunny side (roadside) X 2 AVG % flower buds on the shady side (roadside) Note: this is a one- tailed test, with 38 d.f.

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H 2 : % flower buds is greater for trees in the sun than for those in the shade T-TEST X 1 AVG % flower buds in understory X 2 AVG % flower buds on sunny side of roadside trees Note: this is a one- tailed test, with 38 d.f.

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Correlation a) If there is NO difference between % flower buds in sunny and shady environments: Correlation #1: % total flower buds on roadside and understory trees (y-axis) vs DBH (x-axis) b) If there IS a difference between % flower buds in sunny and shady environments: Correlation #1: % total flower buds on roadside trees (y- axis) vs DBH (x-axis) Correlation #2: % total flower buds on understory trees (y- axis) vs DBH (x-axis) H 3 : % flower buds and tree age-size (DBH) are significantly positively correlated

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Why do we have conditional analysis?

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Hypothesis & Prediction 3 H 3 : % flower buds and tree age-size (DBH) are significantly positively correlated What do you get? → correlation coefficient: r -positive/negative relationship -significance of relationship CORRELATION ANALYSIS If correlation (r) between mean % flower buds and DBH is positive, look up the significance Note: (n 1 -2) = d.f.

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Roadside TreesUnderstory Trees (40) Sunny-side (20)Shady-side (20) Total TreeDBHFlowerLeaf% FlrFlowerLeaf% FlrFlower TreeDBHLeafFlower %51525%1640% % %10 50%2563% % %91145%2358% % etc %13765%3178% % %19195%3280% % %12860%2973% % Mean % % % S.D % % %

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Shoes for next week Good No good Okay

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