# NAMES OF PRESENTERS Levels of Processing: Effects of Pictures and Age on Word Retention.

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NAMES OF PRESENTERS Levels of Processing: Effects of Pictures and Age on Word Retention

Introduction Craik & Tulving (1975): LOP effect Do pictures and age alter ability of memory? Imagery-Processing in Advertisements (Unnava & Burnkrant, 1991)  Integration of product with picture LOP and age (Ramponi &Richardson-Klavehn, 2004)  Younger and Older adults

Hypotheses Null Hypothesis  Main effect of age: μ1=μ2= μ3  Main effect of condition: μ1=μ2= μ3  No interaction of condition x age Alternative Hypotheses  Main effect of age: μ1≠ μ2 ≠ μ3  As age increases, accuracy decreases  Main effect of condition: μ1≠ μ2 ≠ μ3  Deeper processing=deeper retention  Interaction of condition x age  Deeper processing helps older adults more than younger adults

Participants Materials 60 participants  N = 20 age 18  N = 20 age 40  N = 20 age 65 Age: between-subjects Condition: within- subjects Randomized selection and assignment Consent form Lab room Computer Software  Pictures of varying complexity  Measure:  Time viewing of pictures  Accuracy at test

Levels of Processing Independent Variables:  Age of adults  Levels: Young, Middle-aged, Older adults  Question type (condition)  Shallow, Medium, Deep Processing Dependent Variables  Number of words correctly recalled Trials  15 Picture-Word Combinations for each condition Counterbalance  Randomize LOP order

Procedure Program computer with software Study Phase  Participants are shown a total of 45 pictures w/ words  Shallow processing  Medium amount of processing  Deep processing  Shown each picture for 5 seconds Test Phase  Participants take a recall test  Write all remembered words

Levels of Processing: Study Phase http://philspector.files.wordpress.com/2009/09/apple.jpg http://www.discountstationers.com/images/Can_CountryTimeLemonade.jpg http://mrmops.co.uk/aquafresh%20fresh%20n%20minty%2050ml.jpg

Results Main effect of age:  A significant difference in recall between age groups  Older < Middle-aged < Younger Main effect of condition:  LOP effect  Shallow < Medium < Deep Interaction of age x condition  No interaction found

Results: Test Phase

Discussion Two-Phase experiment Hypothesis  Younger > Middle-aged > Older  Deep > Medium > Low Potential limitations  Equal control group? Importance and future use  Useful for advertising  Useful to facilitate learning and improve memory

References Craik, F. I. M. & Tulving, E. (1975). Depth of processing and the retention of words in episodic memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 104, 268-294. Ramponi, Cristina; Richardson-Klavehn, Alan; Gardiner, John M. (2004). Level of processing and age affect involuntary conceptual priming of weak but not strong associates. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 51(3), 159-164. Unnava, H. Rao; Burnkrant, Robert E. (1991). An imagery-processing view of the role of pictures in print advertisements. Journal of Marketing Research, 28(2), 226-231.

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