What are fossils? Fossils are the petrified remains of ancient objects. Petrified – means turned to stone. Ancient – means very, very old. PETRIFIED FOSSIL The Field Museum in Chicago displays a fossil of a Tyrannosaurus rex.
What kinds of things make fossils? Fossils can be of animals, plants, or other objects. Most of the time we think of dinosaurs when we hear the word fossil.
Fossils, big or small…. Fossils can be very large or very small Scientists even have found fossilized dinosaur teeth and claws!
How are fossils made? 1. Sediment An animal is buried by sediment, such as volcanic ash or silt, shortly after it dies. Its bones are protected from rotting by the layer of sediment. 4. Erosion Erosion from rain, rivers, and wind wears away the remaining rock layers. Eventually, erosion or people digging for fossils will expose the preserved remains. 2. Layers More sediment layers accumulate above the animal’s remains, and minerals, such as silica (a compound of silicon and oxygen), slowly replace the calcium phosphate in the bones. 3. Movement Movement of tectonic plates, or giant rock slabs that make up Earth’s surface, lifts up the sediments and pushes the fossil closer to the surface.
Five kinds of fossils: Petrified Fossils Molds and Casts Carbon Films Trace Fossils Preserved Remains
Why are fossils important? A paleontologist is a scientist who digs up fossils, puts the bones together and tries to figure out what type of animal it used to be. Fossils give clues about organisms that lived long ago. They help to show that evolution has occurred. They also provide evidence about how Earth’s surface has changed over time. Fossils help scientists understand what past environments may have been like.
Let’s Make a Fossil! We are going to make mold and trace fossils 1. Flatten a ball of clay on manila paper 2. Press objects lightly into the clay After the clay is fired in the kiln, we will paint it to make it look ancient and weathered!
Dinosaurs lived millions of years ago! Mesozoic Era Triassic Period (245-208 million years ago) Jurassic Period (208-145 million years ago) Cretaceous Period (145-66 million years ago) Dinosaurs could be: Herbivores: vegetarian; eats plants Carnivores: eats meat
TYRANNOSAURUS “Tyrant Lizard” 7” teeth 23’ tall, 50’ long 16,000 lbs. Could run at 30 MPH Could lift 450 lbs. Carnivore Found in North American and Asia
STEGOSAURUS “Roof Lizard” Herbivore 14’ tall, 28’ long 6,000 lbs. Found in western North America
ANKYLOSAURUS “Fused Lizard” Herbivore 11’ tall, 35” long 10,000 lbs. Tail was used as a weapon against predators Found in North America
BACTROSAURUS Pronunciation: BAK-truh- SAWR-us Translation: Bactrian Lizard Also known as: Description: Herbivore, Bipedal Order: Ornithischia Suborder: Ornithopoda Infraorder: Iguanodontia Family: Hadrosauridae Height: 8 feet (2.4 meters) Length: 20 feet (6.1 meters) Weight: Period: Late Cretaceous Notes: Bactrosaurus is one of the earliest known duck-billed hadrosaurs. It had fewer teeth than did later hadrosaurs. It lived in what is now Mongolia. BAGACERATOPS Pronunciation: bag-uh-SAIR-uh- tops Translation: Small Horned Face Also known as: Description: Herbivore, Quadrupedal Order: Ornithischia Suborder: Marginocephalia Infraorder: Ceratopsia Micro-order Neoceratopsia Family: Protoceratopsidae Height: 12 inches (0.3 meters) Length: 36 inches (0.9 meters) Weight: 7 pounds (3.2 kg) Period: Late Cretaceous Notes: Discovered in the Gobi desert of Mongolia, Bagaceratops was a small, primitive ceratopsian. It had a very small horn on its nose and its neck was protected by a very short frill. Glossary In Asia, the protoceratopsians were prevalent during the Late Cretaceous, while no certain neoceratopsians are known, whereas at the same time in North America, the neoceratopsians were more prevalent and only a few protoceratopsians have been discovered. BAHARIASAURUS Pronunciation: buh-HAR-ee-uh- SAWR-us Translation: Baharije Lizard Also known as: Description: Carnivore, Bipedal Order: Saurischia Suborder: Theropoda Infraorder: Tetanurae Micro-order: Carnosauria Height: Length: Weight: Period: Cretaceous Notes: The name was given to fragmentary remains found in Egypt. It was probably similar to Megalosaurus.No further study of Bahariasaurus is possible until new specimens are identified, for its remains were destroyed in the World War II bombing of Stuttgart, Germany. BARAPASAURUS Pronunciation: buh-RAP-puh- SAWR-us Translation: Big Leg Lizard Also known as: Description: Herbivore, Quadrupedal Order: Saurischia Suborder: Sauropodomorpha Infraorder: Sauropoda Family: Vulcanodontidae Height: 25 feet (7.6 meters) Length: 60 feet (18.3 meters) Weight: Period: Early Jurassic Notes: Known from parts of over 300 individual specimens found in India yet no skulls have been recovered. Barapasaurus is the oldest known sauropod certain to have been a sauropod, however; Vulcanodon may be older. While Barapasaurus gathered in herds, as did many sauropods, it differed in that it had comparatively slender legs. BAROSAURUS Pronunciation: BARE-uh- SAWR-us Translation: Heavy Lizard Also known as: Description: Herbivore, Quadrupedal Order: Saurischia Suborder: Sauropodomorpha Infraorder: Sauropoda Family: Diplodocidae Height: 40 feet (12.2 meters) Length: 79 feet (24.1 meters) Weight: 50,000 pounds (22,680 kg) Period: Late Jurassic Notes: Barosaurus is a relatively rare sauropod. The first dinosaur to be found in the Black Hills of South Dakota, its remains have also been found in East Africa suggesting the connection of the modern African and North American continents during Late Jurassic times. The neck of Barosaurus was 30 feet long, longer than its closest relative, the whip-tailed giant Diplodocus but its tail was shorter and its hind limbs stockier. Gastroliths were discovered among its the bones, indicating that at least some dinosaurs swallowed stones to grind the food they consumed. BARYONYX Pronunciation: bare-ee-ON-iks Translation: Heavy Claw Also known as: Description: Carnivore, Bipedal, semi Quadrupedal Order: Saurischia Suborder: Theropoda Family: Height: 6 feet (1.8 meters) Length: 30 feet (9.1 meters) Weight: 4,000 lbs (1,814 kg) Period: Early Cretaceous Notes: Discovered in southern England, Baronyx had a huge curved claw over 12 inches (30- cm) in length on each hand. Its long narrow jaws were equipped with small pointed teeth, twice as many as a theropod would normally have, which leads many to think that Baryonyx was a fisher. It might have waded in shallow water to spear fish with its claws. BELLUSAURUS Pronunciation: BEL-uh-SAWR- us Translation: Beautiful lizard Also known as: Description: Herbivore, Quadrupedal Order: Saurischia Suborder: Sauropodomorpha Infraorder: Sauropoda Family: Cetiosauridae (not confirmed) Height: Length: 16.4 feet (5 meters) Weight: Period: Middle Jurassic Notes: Sauropod skulls were small and light-boned, and finds are rare, but a complete Bellusaurus skull exists, showing that this very small sauropod had a deep head with a sloping face. There is a possibility that all Bellusaurus finds may be juveniles, hence their small size. BOTHRIOSPONDYLUS Pronunciation: bah-three-uh- SPON-dih-lus Translation: Excavated Vertebrae Also known as: Marmarospondylus Description: Herbivore, Quadrupedal Order: Saurischia Suborder: Sauropodomorpha Infraorder: Sauropoda Family: Brachiosauridae Height: 35 feet (10.7 meters) Length: 66 feet (20.1 meters) Weight: Period: Late Jurassic Notes: Bothriospondylus is known from fragmentary remains discovered in Western Europe and Madagascar. This sauropod had large teeth and a long tail. Its forelegs were approximately as long as its hind legs. BRACHIOSAURUS “Arm Lizard” Herbivore 50’ tall, 100’ long 120,000 lbs. Complete skeleton fossil found in Tanzania
TRICERATOPS Three-Horned Face” Herbivore 9.5’ tall, 26’ long 14,000 lbs. Found in North America
Extinction No one knows for sure what caused the dinosaurs to go extinct, or die Starvation A meteor Climate change Some animals did survive though! Alligators and crocodiles Mosquitoes Sharks Turtles Frogs
Let’s Draw Dinosaur Texture! Choose a dinosaur to draw a close-up view of! Draw the texture on the dinosaur skin using line and shape Color neatly! I Can… …draw texture …draw a dinosaur …color neatly
WHAT DID THE EARTH LOOK LIKE TO DINOSAURS? Dinosaurs
Pangea The world looked A LOT different when the dinosaurs roamed the earth The earth is constantly changing, as it has been around for millions of years Continental drift has caused the continents we have today When the dinosaurs roamed the earth, there was only one continent, Pangea
Dinosaur World Create a drawing of a dinosaur world Draw an appropriate environment Draw 3 dinosaurs Draw good texture on their skin Show depth Draw with pencil first Outline with black marker Color with crayons I can… Draw a dinosaur Draw texture Create depth in my artwork Describe the world when dinosaurs lived