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Child Psychology, A Canadian Perspective Third Edition Younger, Adler, Vasta.

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Presentation on theme: "Child Psychology, A Canadian Perspective Third Edition Younger, Adler, Vasta."— Presentation transcript:

1 Child Psychology, A Canadian Perspective Third Edition Younger, Adler, Vasta

2 Chapter 14 Moral Development Younger, Adler, Vasta/Child Psychology, Third Edition, Chapter 14 2

3 Learning Objectives Younger, Adler, Vasta/Child Psychology, Third Edition, Chapter 143 Learning Objective 14.1: Learning Objective 14.1: Understand four theoretical approaches to the study of moral development. Understand four theoretical approaches to the study of moral development. Learning Objective 14.2: Learning Objective 14.2: Understand what research has found concerning children’s moral reasoning. Understand what research has found concerning children’s moral reasoning. Learning Objective 14.3: Learning Objective 14.3: Understand the development of prosocial behaviour and identify its determinants. Understand the development of prosocial behaviour and identify its determinants. Learning Objective 14.4: Learning Objective 14.4: Describe the factors that contribute to aggressive behaviour, and discuss ways of reducing aggression in children. Describe the factors that contribute to aggressive behaviour, and discuss ways of reducing aggression in children.

4 Morality Issues Younger, Adler, Vasta/Child Psychology, Third Edition, Chapter 144 Morality involves issues of right and wrong Morality involves issues of right and wrong Moral rules: Moral rules: Broad issues of fairness and justice Broad issues of fairness and justice Social conventions: Social conventions: Rules used by society to maintain order Rules used by society to maintain order Morality has different components Morality has different components Thought processes that underlie morality are assessed in moral reasoning studies Thought processes that underlie morality are assessed in moral reasoning studies Behaviours governed by morality are assessed in studies of moral conduct Behaviours governed by morality are assessed in studies of moral conduct

5 Theories of Moral Development Younger, Adler, Vasta/Child Psychology, Third Edition, Chapter 145 Piaget’s stage theory: Piaget’s stage theory: Used moral dilemmas to assess children’s thoughts on morality Used moral dilemmas to assess children’s thoughts on morality Stage 1 (2–4 yrs) Stage 1 (2–4 yrs) Children have no true conception of morality Children have no true conception of morality Stage 2 (5–7 yrs) Stage 2 (5–7 yrs) Children understand and use rules, but are not flexible in rule use (stage of moral realism) Children understand and use rules, but are not flexible in rule use (stage of moral realism) Objective responsibility Objective responsibility Children evaluate moral situations on the basis of amount of damage Children evaluate moral situations on the basis of amount of damage Immanent justice Immanent justice Inherent justice Inherent justice

6 Theories of Moral Development Younger, Adler, Vasta/Child Psychology, Third Edition, Chapter 146 Piaget’s stage theory (cont’d) Piaget’s stage theory (cont’d) Stage 3 (8–11 yrs) Stage 3 (8–11 yrs) Children realize that rules are conventions and can be altered Children realize that rules are conventions and can be altered Children in this stage now consider intention in their evaluations of morality (stage of moral relativism) Children in this stage now consider intention in their evaluations of morality (stage of moral relativism) Stage 4 Stage 4 Children develop rules as needed and extend moral reasoning beyond their personal level Children develop rules as needed and extend moral reasoning beyond their personal level Moral reasoning develops as the cognitive structures of the child develop Moral reasoning develops as the cognitive structures of the child develop

7 Theories of Moral Development Younger, Adler, Vasta/Child Psychology, Third Edition, Chapter 147 Kohlberg’s model Kohlberg’s model Presented children with moral dilemmas and asked them to explain their reasoning Presented children with moral dilemmas and asked them to explain their reasoning Kohlberg’s three levels of reasoning Kohlberg’s three levels of reasoning Preconventional Preconventional A person must meet his/her own needs A person must meet his/her own needs Conventional Conventional Social systems must be based on laws and regulations Social systems must be based on laws and regulations Postconventional Postconventional The value, dignity, and rights of each person must be maintained The value, dignity, and rights of each person must be maintained

8 Theories of Moral Development Younger, Adler, Vasta/Child Psychology, Third Edition, Chapter 148 Evaluating Kohlberg’s Model Evaluating Kohlberg’s Model Invariant sequence is generally supported Invariant sequence is generally supported Cultural critique Cultural critique The universality of Kohlberg’s stages The universality of Kohlberg’s stages The applicability of some moral dilemmas The applicability of some moral dilemmas Gender critique Gender critique Justice versus care Justice versus care

9 Theories of Moral Development Younger, Adler, Vasta/Child Psychology, Third Edition, Chapter 149 Turiel’s model Turiel’s model Children’s moral reasoning involves several different domains Children’s moral reasoning involves several different domains Moral domain is concerned with people’s rights and welfare Moral domain is concerned with people’s rights and welfare Prohibitions against lying, cheating, stealing Prohibitions against lying, cheating, stealing Societal domain involves rules that guide social relations Societal domain involves rules that guide social relations Being polite, wearing appropriate clothing Being polite, wearing appropriate clothing Children’s understanding of moral and societal issues is influenced by context Children’s understanding of moral and societal issues is influenced by context

10 Younger, Adler, Vasta/Child Psychology, Third Edition, Chapter 1410 Evolutionary and Biological Approaches The evolutionary view focuses on processes that promote survival and reproduction The evolutionary view focuses on processes that promote survival and reproduction Altruism Altruism Behaviours that benefit another but that may cost the person Behaviours that benefit another but that may cost the person Kin selection Kin selection A person will act to aid persons who share their genes (Mother is more likely to act to save her child than her husband; child has more of her genes) A person will act to aid persons who share their genes (Mother is more likely to act to save her child than her husband; child has more of her genes) Reciprocal altruism Reciprocal altruism Members of a group reciprocate in their altruism so that all members are more likely to survive and pass on their genes Members of a group reciprocate in their altruism so that all members are more likely to survive and pass on their genes

11 Younger, Adler, Vasta/Child Psychology, Third Edition, Chapter 1411 Evolutionary and Biological Approaches Aggression is another focus of the evolutionary approaches Aggression is another focus of the evolutionary approaches Aggression is involved in predation, defending the nest (home) against intruders, and defending valuable territoryAggression is involved in predation, defending the nest (home) against intruders, and defending valuable territory The evolutionary view is that aggression is an inevitable part of human natureThe evolutionary view is that aggression is an inevitable part of human nature Aggression may lead to dominance hierarchiesAggression may lead to dominance hierarchies

12 Younger, Adler, Vasta/Child Psychology, Third Edition, Chapter 1412 Environmental/Learning Approaches Environmental/Learning approaches Environmental/Learning approaches Reinforcement and observational processes are involved in moral development Reinforcement and observational processes are involved in moral development As children develop, they internalize what they have learned to regulate their own behaviour As children develop, they internalize what they have learned to regulate their own behaviour Sociocultural approaches Sociocultural approaches Moral development is a process of socialization Moral development is a process of socialization Through interactions with family and cultural institutions, children are assisted by other people in structuring and interpreting situations for themselves Through interactions with family and cultural institutions, children are assisted by other people in structuring and interpreting situations for themselves

13 Social and Family Influences on Moral Reasoning Younger, Adler, Vasta/Child Psychology, Third Edition, Chapter 1413 Peer interactions force children to wrestle with moral issues Peer interactions force children to wrestle with moral issues Interaction with a peer whose level of moral reasoning is higher (usually by one level) can improve moral reasoning in a child Interaction with a peer whose level of moral reasoning is higher (usually by one level) can improve moral reasoning in a child Social learning theory suggests that moral reasoning can be influenced by modeling and imitation Social learning theory suggests that moral reasoning can be influenced by modeling and imitation

14 Social and Family Influences on Moral Reasoning Younger, Adler, Vasta/Child Psychology, Third Edition, Chapter 1414 Parents’ disciplinary practices Parents’ disciplinary practices Power assertion Power assertion Involves the use of commands, threats, physical force Involves the use of commands, threats, physical force Love withdrawal Love withdrawal Involves the use of disapproval and withholding of affection Involves the use of disapproval and withholding of affection Induction Induction Refers to reasoning with the child to explain why certain behaviours are prohibited Refers to reasoning with the child to explain why certain behaviours are prohibited The induction approach leads to higher moral reasoning, power assertion leads to lower levels of moral reasoning The induction approach leads to higher moral reasoning, power assertion leads to lower levels of moral reasoning

15 Prosocial Behaviour Younger, Adler, Vasta/Child Psychology, Third Edition, Chapter 1415 Prosocial behaviours are socially desirable and include helping, sharing, and conflict resolution Prosocial behaviours are socially desirable and include helping, sharing, and conflict resolution Moral emotions, such as empathy and sympathy are the roots of prosocial behaviors Moral emotions, such as empathy and sympathy are the roots of prosocial behaviors Hoffman’s six stages Hoffman’s six stages Empathy can be observed in infants (cry when hearing another infant cry) Empathy can be observed in infants (cry when hearing another infant cry) Development of sympathy is related to children’s ability to understand others’ mental states Development of sympathy is related to children’s ability to understand others’ mental states

16 Prosocial Behaviour Younger, Adler, Vasta/Child Psychology, Third Edition, Chapter 1416 Hoffman’s Six Stages Stage 1: Global empathic distress Stage 2: Egocentric empathic distress Stage 3: Quasi-egocentric empathic distress Stage 4: Veridical empathy Stage 5: Empathic distress beyond the situation Stage 6: Empathy for distressed groups

17 Development of Prosocial Behaviour Younger, Adler, Vasta/Child Psychology, Third Edition, Chapter 1417 Helping Helping Toddlers comfort those in distress Toddlers comfort those in distress Increases with age Increases with age Sharing Sharing Emerges by the end of the first year Emerges by the end of the first year Children are more likely to share with friends and those who have given them help in the past Children are more likely to share with friends and those who have given them help in the past Conflict resolution Conflict resolution From coercion to negotiation From coercion to negotiation Resolve conflict both verbally and nonverbally Resolve conflict both verbally and nonverbally

18 Determinants of Prosocial Behaviour Younger, Adler, Vasta/Child Psychology, Third Edition, Chapter 1418 Biology Biology Genes influence prosocial development through temperament Genes influence prosocial development through temperament Affect Affect Empathetic distress Empathetic distress Cognition Cognition Prosocial reasoning, and children’s mental state understanding Prosocial reasoning, and children’s mental state understanding Socialization Socialization Parents contribute to children’s prosocial development by Parents contribute to children’s prosocial development by providing opportunities to practice prosocial behaviurs providing opportunities to practice prosocial behaviurs communicating prosocial values using inductive techniques communicating prosocial values using inductive techniques modelling and reinforcing prosocial behaviors. modelling and reinforcing prosocial behaviors.

19 AggressionAggression Younger, Adler, Vasta/Child Psychology, Third Edition, Chapter 1419 Aggression: behaviour that is intended to harm persons or property and that is not socially justified Source: From Table 12.1 in Parke, R. & Clarke-Stewart, A. (2011). Social Development. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., p. 395.

20 Determinants of Aggression Younger, Adler, Vasta/Child Psychology, Third Edition, Chapter 1420 Biological Biological Level of testosterone Level of testosterone Genetically mediated Genetically mediated Related to early difficult temperament Related to early difficult temperament Social influences Social influences Family processes and peer interactions Family processes and peer interactions TV and video game violence TV and video game violence Violent environments Violent environments Cognitive and affective influences Cognitive and affective influences Development of social cognition and empathy Development of social cognition and empathy

21 Controlling Aggression Younger, Adler, Vasta/Child Psychology, Third Edition, Chapter 1421 Different interventions for treating antisocial behaviour are employed Different interventions for treating antisocial behaviour are employed Catharsis Catharsis The belief that aggression can be reduced by viewing aggression or by engaging in high-energy activities The belief that aggression can be reduced by viewing aggression or by engaging in high-energy activities Targeting parents’ child-rearing methods Targeting parents’ child-rearing methods Teaching children problem-solving strategies, empathy, and perspective taking and rethinking the attributions they make of others Teaching children problem-solving strategies, empathy, and perspective taking and rethinking the attributions they make of others Education Education

22 Controlling Aggression Younger, Adler, Vasta/Child Psychology, Third Edition, Chapter 1422 Sequence of steps in the processing of social informationSequence of steps in the processing of social information Many aggressive children show deficits at each step in the processMany aggressive children show deficits at each step in the process

23 Younger, Adler, Vasta/Child Psychology, Third Edition, Chapter 14 Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Access Copyright (the Canadian copyright licensing agency) is unlawful. Requests for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his or her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The author and the publisher assume no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages caused by the use of these files or programs or from the use of the information contained herein. 23


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