5Relative DatingUsed to determine the order of events and age compared to surrounding materialsCan not tell exact age
6Law of SuperpositionOlder layers of rock are beneath younger layers of rock in the rock record
7Law of SuperpositionIn horizontal sedimentary rock layers, the oldest layer is at the bottom. Each higher layer is younger than the layers below it.
8Igneous Rock Clues Forms when magma or lava hardens Extrusion – lava that hardens on the surface-an extrusion is always youngerthan the extrusion below it
9ExtrusionWhen lava hardens on the surface. It is always younger than the rock below it.
10Igneous Rock Clues Intrusion – magma pushes into bodies of rock then cools and hardens- an intrusion is always younger thanthe rock layers around itIntrusion
11IntrusionA mass of igneous rock below the surface is called an Intrusion. It is always younger than the rock layers around and beneath it.
12FaultA fault is a break in the Earth’s crust. A fault is always younger than the rock it cuts through. It makes the layers not line up.
13Unconformities Occur when there are missing layers in the rock record Erosion of existing layersNo new deposition for a period of time (disconformity)Angular Unconformity – tilted rock layers meet horizontal rock layers indicating gaps in rock record
14UnconformityThe surface where new rock layers meet a much older rock surface beneath them is called an unconformity. It is a gap in the geologic record.
15Index Fossils Index Fossils help match rock layers. Must be widely distributed and represent a type of organism that existed only briefly.They tell the relative ages of the rock layers in which they occur.