Stop consonants in Gaelic Word initial /p h t h k h / and /p t k/ Word medial and word final / h p h t h k/ and /p t k/ (Ladefoged et al. 1998) (Also palatalised vs. velarised distinction) ‘Aspirating language’ (Jessen and Ringen 2002), [spread glottis] (Kingston, forthcoming 2010)
Research questions What are the phonetic correlates of the contrast /p h t h k h / and /p t k/ in modern Gaelic? Is this system changing as the language undergoes obsolescence?
Methods Native speakers of Lewis Gaelic 3 older generation, 3 younger Recording conditions Word list data Non-parametric statistical tests
Durational measures Segmenting on the waveform in Praat What is pre-aspiration? (Ní Chasaide 1985) acaaca Vowel Preaspiration BV Noise Modal voice
Adapted Zero Crossing Rate (Gordeeva and Scobbie 2010) Ongoing work: Adapted ZCR in collaboration with Olga Gordeeva – still awaiting statistical analysis Compares and quantifies pre- and post- aspiration using by counting zero crossings on a band-pass filtered sound file Interested in noise from the glottis
Results: contrast /k h /, /k/ càl [kʰɑ:ɫ̪ ] cabbage, gal [kaɫ̪ ] steam
References Anderson, R., 1982. Determining the linguistic attributes of language attrition. In Lambert and Freed, eds., The loss of language skills. Rowley: Newbury House Publishers Babel, M., 2009. The phonetic and phonological effects of obsolescence in Northern Paiute. In J. Stanford and D. Preston, eds., Variation in indigenous minority languages. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Dorian, N., 1981. Language death: the life cycle of a Scottish Gaelic dialect. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press Gordeeva, O., and Scobbie, J., 2010. Preaspiration as a correlate of word-final voice in Scottish English fricatives. In S. Fuchs, M. Toda, M. Zygis, eds., Turbulent sounds: an interdisciplinary guide. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter Jessen, M., and Ringen, C., 2002. Laryngeal features in German. Phonology, 19:2, pp. 189-218 Jones, Mari, 1998. Obsolescence and revitalization: linguistic change in two sociolinguistically contrasting Welsh communities. Oxford: Blackwell Kingston, J., Voice. Forthcoming in Phonology Ladefoged, P., and Ladefoged, J., Turk, A., Hind, K., Skilton, St. J., 1998. Phonetic structures of Scottish Gaelic. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 28, pp. 1-41 MacKinnon, K., 2010. Scottish Gaelic today: social history and contemporary status. In M. Ball and N. Müller, eds., The Celtic languages. 2 nd. ed. London: Routledge Ní Chasaide, A., 1985. Pre-aspiration in phonological stop contrasts. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Bangor Silverman, D., 2003. On the rarity of pre-aspirated stops. Journal of linguistics, 39:3. pp. 575-598 Thomason, S., 2007. Language contact: an introduction. 4 th ed. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press
My supervisor and co-author: Jane Stuart-Smith Collaborator: Olga Gordeeva, Acapela Group email@example.com My informants: Susan Bell, Christeen Combe, Aoghas MacCoinnich, Sarah MacKinnon, Colm Macqueen and all those who wished to remain anonymous Research funded by a Kelvin-Smith Scholarship, University of Glasgow Tapadh Leibh / Thank you