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PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook The University of West Alabama © 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. Age 11
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.11–2 Chapter Objectives After completing this chapter, readers should understand age as an aspect of diversity in organizations. They should specifically be able to understand the age distribution and explain what effects recent and projected shifts in this distribution will have on diversity in organizations. define ageism and discuss its meaning for older and younger workers. explain why younger workers as well as older workers should be included in conceptualizations of age as an aspect of diversity.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.11–3 Chapter Objectives (cont’d) After completing this chapter, readers should understand age as an aspect of diversity in organizations. They should specifically be able to discuss misperceptions about the performance and abilities of older and younger workers. explain age-related legislation and discuss selected cases of employment discrimination against older workers and younger workers. discuss the effects of discrimination and harassment on young workers and the goals of the EEOC’s initiative.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.11–4 Introduction AgeismAgeism Prejudice, stereotypes, and discrimination directed at a person because of his or her age. Age’s Unique Diversity AspectsAge’s Unique Diversity Aspects Aging is a constant that happens to all diversity groups; eventually all enter the undervalued group. Perceptions of “older” and “younger” are more complex than perceptions of other attributes. Prime AgePrime Age The age range of the most preferred employees— those who are between 25 and 35.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.11–5 Historical Background The early and mid-1900sThe early and mid-1900s The employer/employee relationship was life-long, protective and viewed as being familial. Life spans were considerably shorter and workers did not live long enough to work into their 50s and 60s. Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) in 1967Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) in 1967 Prohibits employment-related age discrimination against employees and applicants who are at least 40 years of age by employers of 20 or more people, including state and local governments, employment agencies, and labor unions.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.11–6 Historical Background The Older Workers Benefit Protection Act (OWBPA) in 1990.The Older Workers Benefit Protection Act (OWBPA) in Because the costs to insure older workers are greater than costs to insure younger workers, the OWBPA allows employers to provide lower benefits for older workers as long as the costs to provide those benefits are the same as the costs to provide (higher) benefits for younger workers. Bona Fide Occupational Qualification (BFOQ)Bona Fide Occupational Qualification (BFOQ) Exceptions are allowed where employers can meet the burden of proof for the conditions of a business necessity to employ only specific age persons
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.11–7 Selected EEOC Cases EEOC v. First National Bank of McGregorEEOC v. First National Bank of McGregor Forced retirement EEOC v. Wells Fargo Financial Texas, Inc., f/k/a Norwest Financial Texas, Inc.EEOC v. Wells Fargo Financial Texas, Inc., f/k/a Norwest Financial Texas, Inc. Failure to hire more highly qualified older workers while hiring younger, less qualified workers EEOC v. Enterprise Rent-A-Car Company of Texas, Inc.EEOC v. Enterprise Rent-A-Car Company of Texas, Inc. Refusing to hire older workers as management trainees EEOC v. Maxim Healthcare Services, Inc.EEOC v. Maxim Healthcare Services, Inc. EEOC v. Maxim Healthcare Services, Inc.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.11–8 Selected EEOC Cases (cont’d) EEOC v. KL Shangri-La Owners, L.P., Highgate Hotels, Inc. and Highgate Holdings, Inc., all d/b/a Shangri-La Resort, Inc.EEOC v. KL Shangri-La Owners, L.P., Highgate Hotels, Inc. and Highgate Holdings, Inc., all d/b/a Shangri-La Resort, Inc. Stereotyping as too old and grumpy EEOC v. AT&T, Research Laboratories DivisionEEOC v. AT&T, Research Laboratories Division Stating that they really wanted a younger person EEOC v. Memscap, Inc.EEOC v. Memscap, Inc. Terminated because they were “too seasoned,” translated as “too old”
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.11–9 Legal Protections for Younger Workers Australia’s Age Discrimination Act (2004)Australia’s Age Discrimination Act (2004) Prohibits treating a person unfavorably because of his or her age (or, differently than a person of another age group would be treated under similar circumstances). Elliott-Larsen Civil Rights Act (Michigan)Elliott-Larsen Civil Rights Act (Michigan) Prohibits discrimination on the basis of any age and other categories not protected under federal law.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.11–10 Population, Participation Rates, and Employment Current Population TrendsCurrent Population Trends U.S. Population is aging: fewer younger people entering the workforce will require employers to focus on retaining older workers. More older workers are remaining in the workforce due to changes in technology that lessen the physical demands of work, inflation, increases in costs of medical care, and other economic changes.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.11–11 T ABLE 11.1 Annual Estimates of the U.S. Population by Selected Age Groups July 2000 and 2003 Source: Table 2: Annual Estimates of the Population by Sex and Selected Age Groups for the United States: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2003 (NC-EST ). Population Division, U.S. Census Bureau. Release Date: June 14, 2004, accessed 01/24/05.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.11–12 Bridge Employment and Layoffs Bridge EmploymentBridge Employment Occurs when workers have retired from long-term jobs, but have not fully withdrawn from the workforce. The flexibility of bridge workers makes them useful in filling worker shortages, as part-timers, and in making for skill losses due to retirements and layoffs LayoffsLayoffs Seniority shields many older workers from the effects that layoffs have on younger workers. Older workers are less likely to be laid off, but take longer to find comparable employment.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.11–13 T ABLE 11.2 Summary Measures of the Educational Attainment of the Population 25 Years and Over: 2003 by Age Group Source: Adapted from Stoops, N. (2004). Table A. Summary Measures of the Educational Attainment of the Population 25 Years and Over “Educational Attainment in the United States 2003,”
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.11–14 T ABLE 11.2 (cont’d) Summary Measures of the Educational Attainment of the Population 25 Years and Over: 2003 by Age Group Source: Adapted from Stoops, N. (2004). Table A. Summary Measures of the Educational Attainment of the Population 25 Years and Over “Educational Attainment in the United States 2003,”
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.11–15 F IGURE 11.1 Educational Attainment of Native-Born and Foreign-Born (Immigrant) Young Adults Aged 18 to 24 Who Are out of School (March, 2001) Source: Sum, A. M. (2003). Leaving Young Workers Behind. Special Report, Institute for Youth, Education, and Families. National League of Cities.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.11–16 Research on Employment Experiences of Older Workers PerceptionPerception Older workers are incompetent, unable and unwilling to learn, accident and injury prone, and as having lower performance. Research FindingsResearch Findings Evidence does not support the perceptions above Younger workers earned lower salaries, but older workers received fewer promotions. Older men had more salary advantages relative to younger men than older women had relative to younger women.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.11–17 Research on Employment Experiences of Older Workers (cont’d) Age, Accidents, and Injuries at WorkAge, Accidents, and Injuries at Work Younger and newly hired employees, rather than older and longer tenured employees, appear to be more likely to have accidents or to be injured at work. Training and DevelopmentTraining and Development Misperception: Older workers will retire soon after being trained; therefore, employers should not invest training dollars in them. Reality: Younger workers have higher turnover rates than older workers.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.11–18 Research on Employment Experiences of Older Workers (cont’d) Older Women at WorkOlder Women at Work Experience more prejudice and discrimination at work than older men. Are perceived to become old at younger ages than men and being old is viewed more negatively for women than it is for men.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.11–19 Sexual Harassment of Teen Workers EEOC v. Rare Hospitality Int’l, Inc., d/b/a Longhorn SteakhouseEEOC v. Rare Hospitality Int’l, Inc., d/b/a Longhorn Steakhouse Title VII lawsuit : sexual harassment and retaliatory discharge suit EEOC v. L&L Wings, Inc.EEOC v. L&L Wings, Inc. Title VII lawsuit : sexually hostile working environment EEOC v. Babies “R” Us, Inc.EEOC v. Babies “R” Us, Inc. Title VII lawsuit: hostile working environment
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.11–20 T ABLE 11.3 Relationships between Key Diversity Issues and Career Outcomes for Young Workers
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.11–21 The EEOC’s Work Initiative Goal is to protect and promote equal employment opportunityGoal is to protect and promote equal employment opportunity Intended to create positive initial employment experiences for young workers, helping them as they “enter and navigate the professional world.” Designed to educate young workers on their rights to fair and inclusive work environments. Offers free outreach events at high schools, youth organizations and businesses that hire young workers, providing case scenarios involving discrimination and suggested response strategies.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.11–22 Individual Recommendations Older workers should:Older workers should: Consciously work against stereotypes. Enroll in and complete training at work and outside of work that may be useful. Make their interests in training known to their managers or supervisors. Utilize available tuition reimbursement benefits. Not put specific graduation dates on resumes. Put dates on recently completed training and degree programs that may increase perceptions of (and actual) job qualifications.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.11–23 Individual Recommendations (cont’d) In preparing to seek employment, younger workers should demonstrate responsibility through:In preparing to seek employment, younger workers should demonstrate responsibility through: Earning good grades Completing school within a reasonable period Working reliably at previous jobs Consistently participating in extracurricular activities, or similar positive behaviors.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.11–24 Individual Recommendations (cont’d) Once hired, younger workers should demonstrate responsibility by:Once hired, younger workers should demonstrate responsibility by: Making a conscious effort to behave responsibly and maturely at work. Not confusing education with company- or job-specific knowledge. Asking for advice or seeking a more tenured mentor within an organization. Not being fearful of exercising authority and directing workers who are older. Not being afraid to complain about workplace harassment.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.11–25 Organizational Recommendations Organizations can avoid age discrimination by:Organizations can avoid age discrimination by: Explicitly stating age-neutral policies. Scrutinizing policies and practices for signs of age bias. Having zero tolerance for age bias. Relying on job-relevant criteria, not stereotypical assumptions. Training decision makers about age stereotypes and their potential effects on decisions and behavior.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.11–26 Key Terms AgeismAgeism Bridge employmentBridge employment Prime agePrime age
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