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Birth Order and Personality in the Workplace

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1 Birth Order and Personality in the Workplace
Ben Dattner, Ph.D.

2 Birth Order and Personality
Evolutionary Theory First Born Children Second Born Children Middle Children Only Children Twins Special Circumstances Conclusion

3 Evolutionary Theory Kinds of competition in evolution: Between species
First born children Second born children Middle children Only children Twins Special circumstances Conclusion Kinds of competition in evolution: Between species Within species, within genders For status, power, resources, and mates Within species, between genders For less relative investment in offspring Within species, between parents and their children For resources Within species, between siblings For power and resources (Source: “Born to Rebel” by Frank Sulloway, 1996)

4 Evolutionary Theory Evolutionary theory First born children Second born children Middle children Only children Twins Special circumstances Conclusion Siblings compete for emotional, physical and intellectual resources from parents Depending on sibling position, different niches are available, leading to different patterns of adaptation and different personalities Childhood adaptation to a niche in the family is an important determinant of adult personality and therefore, is an important predictor of thought and behavior in the workplace Personality is about one-third genetics, one-third social environment and one-third family system. The last sets birth order, and the resulting family dynamics

5 First Born Children Definition First born children Second born children Middle children Only children Twins Special circumstances Conclusion Birth order theory and research indicate that there is a greater probability that: First born children will support the status quo as represented by their parents and relative to later born siblings, and tend to be more: Extroverted and confident Assertive, authoritarian, dominant, inflexible Conformist, politically conservative Task-oriented, conscientious and disciplined Concerned about and fearful of losing position and rank Defensive about errors and mistakes Every firstborn gets the parents' undivided attention and high expectations at first and then must learn to share his or her parents. So, many firstborns are high achievers. Often, they are 'the enforcer' in a family, which means they make sure their younger siblings follow the family rules. On the downside, an oldest child may be too rigid and authoritarian. that firstborn children know that if life unfolds as it usually does they will inherit the farm. Their preferred strategies, therefore, are identified with authority and the status quo.

6 Famous First Born Steve Ballmer, CEO of Microsoft:
Definition First born children Second born children Middle children Only children Twins Special circumstances Conclusion Steve Ballmer, CEO of Microsoft: Ballmer is the hard-driving operational manager who has implemented much of Bill Gates’ vision Described variously as ebullient, focused, funny, passionate, sincere, and dynamic Damaged his vocal chords by cheering too loudly at a Microsoft sales meeting Steve’s sister, a social worker in the Seattle area, is two years younger “Build the right products, support these products incredibly well, recruit the right partners and if you do that the products will come alive."(http://www.cnn.com/TECH/computing/9806/17/ms.ballmer.idg/) Relatives describe Steve, the 4th richest person in the world, as “loyal” and “enthusiastic” (http://www.atljewishtimes.com/archives/2000/021800cs.htm)

7 Famous First Born Andrea Jung, CEO of Avon:
Definition First born children Second born children Middle children Only children Twins Special circumstances Conclusion Andrea Jung, CEO of Avon: "I was raised in a traditional, humble Asian environment. There was focus on achievement and education" "Power is the privilege to influence," Jung says. "It's an unbelievable responsibility to influence decisions, shareholder value, and most important to me, people's careers and livelihoods” Her brother, three years younger, runs a San Francisco software development company QUOTES FROM “The 50 Most Powerful Women In American Business.” Fortune Magazine. Time Inc: October 12, P. 76. Exact age gaps between siblings/sibling gender/ What the siblings are doing now What the siblings are doing now: Her brother Mark, three years her junior, runs a San Francisco software development company. [http://goldsea.com/WW/Jungandrea/jungandrea2.html] How the famous person & his or her siblings were treated the same or different by parents Achievement has always been a given. Born in Canada, she grew up in Wellesley, Mass., the daughter of middle-class immigrant parents. There, she and her younger brother were raised in the demanding environment of a family determined to succeed. Her father, born in Hong Kong, received his master's degree in architecture from Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Her mother, born in Shanghai, was a chemical engineer before becoming an accomplished pianist. [http://www.businessweek.com/2000/00_38/b htm] "My parents kept the best aspects of the Asian culture, and they Americanized the family," Jung says. "My mother was a great example for me. She was a working mother with a good career. And from my father I inherited his even keel, a balance between humor and taking things seriously.“ In case their daughter didn't inherit ample ambition, Jung's parents ensured she would develop a strong work ethic. Saturday mornings saw her at Mandarin classes. Weekday afternoons had her practicing the piano, while music recitals consumed weekend evenings. Jung's been driven to achieve since the day she turned five, when her mother put her in front of the family piano and taught her how to bang out basic chords. "I was still taking piano lessons up until 18 months ago," Jung says. "And if I had one thing I could add to my very full calendar, it would be that. That's one of my personal goals because it helps balance all parts of your life and I really get a lot of enjoyment out of playing Mozart and Beethoven.” When Jung entered high school, she had enough drive to satisfy everyone but herself. She delved into class politics, becoming her class secretary and then student body president. She was fluent in Mandarin, conversational in Cantonese and passable in French. She went immediately to Princeton, where she studied English Literature and graduated magna cum laude in 1979 When she began flirting with department store work after college her parents scoffed. When she started actually taking full-time retail jobs, they gasped, complaining bitterly that she was dumping all they had invested in their little girl into the waste heap and lowering herself into the same class as street hawkers and used car salesmen. Her parents' sneers, however, turned to applause when Andrea Jung moved to the pinnacle of retailing respectability by becoming President of Avon's Product Marketing Group for the U.S. [before moving on to become named CEO of all Avon in late 1999]. [http://goldsea.com/WW/Jungandrea/jungandrea2.html] Individual’s personal leadership style "No one in my family had a retail or marketing background," says Jung, 41. "They were professionals. They didn't understand just what I was doing by going into retailing. After I started, though, it got into my blood. I knew this was what I wanted." This determined style sweeps across the landscape of her personal and professional life. Her professional style reflects her no-nonsense directness. She never shies away from seeking advice and aggressively sought out and cultivated senior women executives to serve as her mentors. [http://goldsea.com/WW/Jungandrea/jungandrea2.html] Earlier in her career, some co-workers say they found Jung ''aloof'' and detached. But at Avon, she has lost some of that reserve, and that has helped her connect with Avon reps. ''Four years ago, I saw an extremely private, incredibly brilliant person,'' says Brian C. Connolly, Avon's senior vice-president for U.S. sales and operations. ''Now I see a leader who's willing to tell the story of her heritage, her grandmother, her daughter. She's more comfortable in herself.'‘ From her start at Avon, Jung seemed to look at the company differently than management old-timers. Brought in to study whether it should be moving into retail, she came back with a quick ''no,'' arguing that neither the products nor the sales reps were ready. Her no-nonsense views impressed then-CEO James E. Preston, who offered her a job as head of marketing. Once Jung was on board, Preston became her mentor and ally. He promoted her career, asking her to speak at board meetings. That put her on a par with executives who had been at Avon for decades. ''We looked at the market through one set of glasses,'' says Preston, one of the old guard. ''She had a fresh take on what Avon could be.'' More than anything, Jung proved she was decisive. She would approve a detailed, million-dollar ad campaign in as little as 15 minutes. Early on, she sacked Avon's ad agency and ordered a complete packaging redesign. She killed Avon's hodgepodge of regional brands and replaced them with global brands like Avon Color, a line of cosmetics. That cut out 35% to 40% of Avon catalog items. ''You don't sell anything to Andrea. She buys it or she doesn't,'' says Mary Lou Quinlan, the former CEO of N.W. Ayer & Partners, the agency that Jung brought in when she ran Avon's marketing. That Jung, with her expensive designer suits and elegant jewelry, has found a way to bond with the average Avon rep may be her most surprising feat. As she walked the halls of the convention in the days leading up to her speech, Jung couldn't go more than a few steps without crowds asking her to pose for a group photo or sign an autograph. ''I'm going to take a photo and have it blown up and put it on my wall for motivation,'' said Julie A. Mann, a 24-year-old rep from San Diego, who waited in line for 15 minutes. [http://www.businessweek.com/2000/00_38/b htm] How the person learned or had an epiphany about his/her strengths or weaknesses as an _____ sibling- ie: famous people who are younger born failed in rigid environments but succeeded in flexible ones, first borns learned that they preferred structure, etc. "You have to combine instinct with a good business acumen," Jung says. "You just can't be creative, and you just can't be analytical. To me it was a very interesting career to get into." Though driven and determined, Jung still retained traces of what she calls her childhood Asian submissiveness. And she realized survival in the dog-eat-dog corporate world meant shedding all vestiges of her retiring ways. By studying Vass she planned to learn the finer points of tactful aggression. Vass (her mentor) was confident, articulate and aggressive. She also balanced a fast-paced career with a quiet family life. In her Jung saw the kind of executive she wanted to be. Jung realized that men saw themselves as modern-day Genghis Khans. They believed they could shout through 12 hours of fist-pounding negotiations and afterwards sweat through several games of racquetball without getting winded. Men refused to recognize their own limitations, while women did all too well. Jung thought businesswomen needn't dwell in this world of delusion, but should support themselves by accepting reality. They should network to discuss their doubts and find ways to overcome it. In reality, though, businesswomen rarely did this. It was seen as a weakness in a corporate landscape sculpted by male values. "Women don't support other women as well as they should," she says. Avon's corporate culture appealed to Jung. Women form one quarter of the company's Board of Directors and nearly half of its senior officers. At Avon, Jung points out, there is no glass ceiling to squelch her advancement. And how companies treat women has always played a major role in her decision-making. "I have a love for this business," she says. "I have an enormous amount of passion for it. Since I'm a mother and a wife, I have to have passion or the frustration would win out. But I love managing people. The product is second to managing the people. And marketing to consumers is so challenging because it is evolving constantly." "I think there is," Jung says, "a big and significant difference between being a leader and being a manager-leaders lead from the heart. You have to be analytical and flexible. Flexibility is one of the key ingredients to being successful. If you feel like it's difficult to change, you will probably have a harder time succeeding." While elasticity spawns innovation, creativity and other qualities that generate exciting business, Jung believes routine promotes a successful home life. And like most corporate officers, she has learned to allot portions of the day to her family. Otherwise, she says, she would be swallowed by her career. "The part that loses out at the end of the day is just doing things for myself," she says. "Sometimes when I go on a business trip, it's those five hours on the plane or that night in the hotel room which are the only moments when I have time for myself. Only then can I read magazines or a novel." [http://goldsea.com/WW/Jungandrea/jungandrea2.html]

8 Second Born Children Evolutionary theory First born children Second born children Middle children Only children Twins Special circumstances Conclusion Second born children do not have the option of occupying the first born’s niche and relative to first born siblings, tend to be more: Open to new experiences, rebellious, unconventional Creative, flexible, more likely to embrace change and innovation More empathic and relationship focused Concerned about fairness and justice, champions of those with less power, more liberal politically Less academically inclined, but better at using social intelligence and humor More interested in travel and diverse cultures, often more successful at international assignments

9 Famous Second Born Evolutionary theory First born children > Second born children Middle children Only children Twins Special circumstances Conclusion Louis V. Gerstner, Jr., Former CEO of IBM Gerstner’s older brother was a high-level business manager at IBM when he joined the company From the very beginning of his tenure at IBM, Gerstner made sure that everything he did communicated the need to change the way the organization did business Gerstner transformed IBM, emphasizing a clear focus on customers and heavily investing in services and software QUOTES FROM: NOTE: this article looks like it could be great if you want to buy it – for more childhood info Gerstner created another stir just months after becoming CEO when he engineered an $8.9 billion write-off and brushed off questions about his long-term strategy. He also surprised the industry observers by refusing to break up the company. Gerstner instead decided that one of IBM's remaining advantages was that it could offer customers a broad range package of services and hardware, a path that has been belatedly taken by other computer firms. Gerstner also zeroed in on instilling a customer focus at a company that had lost touch with its market. Gerstner set the tone while still fresh in his job, when executives asked whether he could make a brief visit to a gathering of IBM customers. Gerstner was a controversial choice for IBM which he took over in 1993, an outsider to the high-tech industry who knew little about dynamics. The challenges facing Gerstner were enormous. From 1991 through 1993, the company lost $16 billion, one of the worst setbacks in U.S. business history. A bankruptcy filing was debated. Instead of putting in the requested one-hour appearance, Gerstner stayed for the entire two days of the convention and urged other company executives to do the same. IBM was soon making money again. Beyond the profitability that was Gerstner's obsession, he loosened the tie in IBM's stodgy uniform and revived the IBM brand, even using humor in commercials. Gerstner will be remembered as the man who brought one of America's biggest companies back from the brink. [http://alumni.mckinsey.com/app001/alhome.nsf/ALWebAppNews/9C0F70DE08D0C5D885256B720071EBDF?Opendocument] gaps between siblings/genders: Lou Gerstner was born on March 1, 1942 and grew up in Mineola, New York the second of four sons. [http://members.aol.com/bookviewzine/myhomepage/issue134.html]. Childhood anecdotes about famous person that may explain why famous person is the way he/she is now: He attended Dartmouth as an engineering science major and joined a fraternity. [http://members.aol.com/bookviewzine/myhomepage/issue134.html]. Gerstner was known for his versatility even before IBM. A Dartmouth College graduate and Harvard MBA, Gerstner launched his business career in 1965 with the McKinsey & Company consulting firm. He left McKinsey for an 11-year stint as a top executive at American Express and then spent four years as chairman and chief executive of RJR Nabisco Inc. [http://alumni.mckinsey.com/app001/alhome.nsf/ALWebAppNews/9C0F70DE08D0C5D885256B720071EBDF?Opendocument] What the siblings are doing now In 1993 the founders of Telular Corp., a fledgling Chicago-based telecommunications company, wanted a marquee name to whip up enthusiasm for their forthcoming IPO. So they tapped Richard Gerstner, a 32-year IBM veteran who was thought to have been in the running for the top job there before he suffered a bout with Lyme disease and watched the job go to his younger brother, Louis. Gerstner's famous name played well on the road show, making for a successful IPO. But the story told by company insiders was one of a free-spending manager ill-served by his corporate mind-set. More on website [http://www.inc.com/articles/hr/manage_emp/exec_search/ html] Once in line for the top job at International Business Machines Corp., Richard Gerstner, brother of current IBM chief Louis V. Gerstner, had left the computer giant after suffering a debilitating, misdiagnosed bout with Lyme disease. Cured in 1993 and eager to run a company, he joined Telular Corp., a fledgling 125-employee cellular communications company with $12 million in annual revenue. Mr. Gerstner’s big-company instincts didn’t serve him well in his new venue, according to former Telular officials. Expenses mushroomed as he brought in a cadre of high-priced senior executives, rapidly expanded operations and pushed to relocate to fancier digs. "He wanted to replace tile floors with plush wool carpets," says Joel Bellows, a former Telular director. "We had one senior executive for every million dollars in revenue." Mr. Gerstner did help to propel a successful initial public offering in 1994, but Telular foundered as ballooning expenses outstripped sales. Forced from daily management responsibilities by the board in 1995, he resigned from Telular last November. He declines to comment on his tenure at Telular. How the person learned or had an epiphany about his/her strengths or weaknesses as an _____ sibling- ie: famous people who are younger born failed in rigid environments but succeeded in flexible ones, first borns learned that they preferred structure, etc. Barcelona , Spain, 03/25/94 - The long-awaited "vision statement" by the IBM chairman, Lou Gerstner, turned out to be much ado about nothing. "The mountain shook, (but only) a mouse was born," an Eastern European proverb says. In a very long speech, full of typical "IBM speak," the IBM boss proved not only that he was no visionary, but that he was no "change agent," either. Instead of taking a sledgehammer to the "IBM culture," the change of which Gerstner himself admitted was a prerequisite for success, he seemed to have adopted it quite well. The "techie" tone of the speech also suggested that it was written by someone with an engineering and/or manufacturing mentality, not by a "business architect." The speech lacked imagination; it lacked inspiration; it lacked even the basic understanding of the global economic and political trends against which any multi-national strategy must be plotted. In short, it was a flat, begrudging response to criticism which IBM CEO's July comment drew - that "the last thing that IBM needs right now is a vision statement." The high point of the speech came when Gerstner read his vision statement early on in the talk and said, "well, that's it. Thanks for coming." It was the only line which drew audible laughter. Yet, the flippant comment also revealed his true feelings - that IBM really did not need all this vision thing, just a better management mechanic at the top. How do we know that? Because, after almost an hour and a half, Gerstner concluded his speech with an "anti-vision statement." "So the most important strategic priority for IBM becomes, when you peel it to the core, to execute what it knows - and has known for years. Execution will lead IBM back to success." (It's a good thing for Gerstner that no analyst in the audience asked him, "whose execution?"). In hindsight, maybe Gerstner should have walked out after getting his first laugh. For, the rest of the speech provided ample cause for worry among IBM shareholders, and plenty of new reasons for IBM critics to hang him. As for those arms-length IBM sympathizers who, like this writer, kept giving Gerstner the benefit of the doubt, and even defended him against some unfair raps in the media, yesterday's speech dashed any hopes that he would indeed be the "business architect" IBM needs. And the latter hope was the main reason we applauded a computer industry outsider's, rather than an insider- technologist's, selection for the top IBM job a year ago (see ANNEX BULLETIN 93-19, 3/29/93). Ironically, we also noted at the time that Gerstner was an outsider who comes as close as an outsider can to being an insider. We wondered, therefore, if he were picked by the Board because he would not rock the boat too much and make radical changes. Now we know that. As does the stock market. The IBM stock dropped 21/2 points after the Wall Street took a look at Gerstner's "vision." Last quote taken from “Who say elephants can’t dance”, p 183

10 Famous Second Born Ronald Lauder, CEO of RSL Investments
Evolutionary theory First born children Second born children Middle children Only children Twins Special circumstances Conclusion Ronald Lauder, CEO of RSL Investments Lauder has successfully invested his family’s fortune in a wide variety of emerging businesses and markets He was the US ambassador to Austria under Reagan and unsuccessfully ran for mayor of New York City in 1989, spending $400 for each vote he received Ronald is the younger brother of Leonard Lauder, Chairman of The Estée Lauder Companies “What makes Lauder so successful … is his experience outside the organization, including his involvement with an innovative network of business enterprises.” (http://www.jewishpost.com/jp0801/jpn0801i.htm)

11 Famous Second Born George Soros, CEO of Soros Fund Management
Evolutionary theory First born children Second born children Middle children Only children Twins Special circumstances Conclusion George Soros, CEO of Soros Fund Management Born in Budapest, Hungary, graduated from the London School of Economics, where his grades were not good enough to get into graduate school Describes himself as a “failed philosopher” and has developed an investing philosophy he calls “reflexivity” Gives away hundreds of millions of dollars each year through the Open Society Institute which encourages democracy Considers his older brother Paul, an engineer, “the real brains in the family” First Bullet Point: Schapiro, Mark. “Interview with George Soros, Chairman, Soros Fund Management.” State of the World Forum Retrieved March 13, 2003 from the World Wide Web: Second Bullet Point: Deutschman, Alan. “George Soros.” Salon.com. Retrieved March 13, 2003 from the World Wide Web: Third Bullet Point: Deutschman, Alan. “George Soros.” Salon.com. Retrieved March 13, 2003 from the World Wide Web: Fourth Bullet Point: Dr. B. Dattner (personal communication). From Ben’s [source unknown]: -More risk taking, challenging the establishment -George considers his older brother Paul, an engineer, much smarter (“the real brains in the family”) Salon.com article -”Like John D. Rockefeller in a previous generation, Soros found making his billions to be very stressful, and he took much more pleasure in giving them away.” -”No wager was bigger than the time in September 1992 when he risked $10 billion -- billion with a B -- that the British pound would fall. His instinct was right: That night, while Soros slept in his apartment on New York's Fifth Avenue, he made $1 billion from the trade. Ultimately his profit reached almost $2 billion -- and earned him international notoriety.” -”Well, you know, I was a human being before I became a businessman. In my capacity as a human being, I actually argue that [businessmen need] to separate their business interests from their interest as citizens.”

12 Middle Children Evolutionary theory First born children Second born children Middle children Only children Twins Special circumstances Conclusion Middle children cannot employ the strategies used by either first born or youngest siblings and relative to other siblings, tend to be more: Diplomatic and politically skilled Good at negotiation, peacemaking, and compromise Relatively closer to friends than to family Because of differentiation between adjacent siblings, non-adjacent siblings tend to be more similar to one another ( e.g.: 3rd is like 1st, 4th is like 2nd, etc.)

13 Famous Middle Born Kenneth I. Chenault, CEO of American Express :
Definition First born children Second born children > Middle children Only children Twins Special circumstances Conclusion Kenneth I. Chenault, CEO of American Express : Balances an unrelenting achievement drive with friendliness and an open door policy Classmates often chose Chenault to represent them in negotiations with school administrators because of his diplomatic skills Ken is the second born of three brothers and one sister “Ken radiates such a depth of belief that people would do anything for him,'' says Rochelle Lazarus, chairman and CEO of Ogilvy & Mather Worldwide Inc. (http://www.businessweek.com/1998/51/b htm) A methodical, inclusive decision-maker, he leaves his door open to subordinates and encourages them to speak their minds. ''With Ken, there is no game-playing, no politics whatsoever,'' says Norma Arnold, a 23-year AmEx worker (http://www.businessweek.com/1998/51/b htm)

14 Famous Middle Born Michael Dell, CEO of Dell
Definition First born children Second born children > Middle children Only children Twins Special circumstances Conclusion Michael Dell, CEO of Dell Looks for employees who “expect change to be the norm” and who do not "accept the status quo as good enough” Describes himself as “allergic to hierarchy” He is the middle of three brothers, the youngest of whom is a successful venture capitalist First Bullet Point: Second Bullet Point: Dell, Michael. Direct from Dell: Strategies that Revolutionized an Industry. New York: HarperBusiness, 1999, p. 110. Third Bullet Point: Dell, Michael. Direct from Dell: Strategies that Revolutionized an Industry. New York: HarperBusiness, 1999, p. 133. Fourth Bullet Point: Frey, J. (2000, April 23). “The Other Dell’s Silicon Venture,” The New York Times. [Retrieved March 7, 2003 on the World Web: [Direct from Dell: Strategies That Revolutionized an Industry] -Both “impatient and curious” in the third grade (xvi) -Made $2000 in an entrepreneurial venture advertising and selling stamps in a trade journal at age 12 (4) -“My parents…expected me to be a premed at the University of Texas at Austin, just like my older brother.” (9) -“Sometimes it's better not to listen when people tell you that something can't be done. I didn't ask for permission or approval. I just went ahead and did it." (12) -Left college at the University of Texas after his freshman year to work full-time on his computer business (13) -“I wanted to grow and develop myself. And I wanted to maintain a healthy balance in my life, and spend time with my young and rapidly growing family.” (64) -“For any company to succeed, it’s critical for top management to share power successfully. You have to be focused on achieving goals for the organization, not on accumulating power for yourself…You also need to respect one another, and communicate so constantly that you’re practically of one mind on the most important topics and issues that face the company.” (65) -Worked on “customer relationships and the external things” (65) -Worldly nature as it relates to the World Wide Web: “I love the idea of being able to turn on a PC and see what was going on anywhere in the world” (89) -“My goal has always been to make sure that everyone at Dell feels they are a part of something great – somewhat special – perhaps something even greater than themselves.” (108) -“At Dell we look for people who possess the questioning nature of a student and are always ready to learn something new. Because so much of what has contributed to our success goes against the grain of conventional wisdom, we look for those who have an open, questioning mind: we look for people who have a healthy balance of experience and intellect; people who aren’t afraid to make a mistake in the process of innovation; and people who expect change to be the norm and are liberated by the idea of looking at problems or situations from a different angle and coming up with unprecedented solutions.” ( ) -“Being on the cover of Fortune doesn’t guarantee you anything.” (129) -Hosts town halls meetings every year (131) -“Allergic to hierarchy” (133) => “focus the organization on the customer” (137) -“Dell is very much a relationship-oriented company.” (171) -“A ton of opportunities yet to exploit” (226) “The Other Dell’s Silicon Adventure” -Adam Dell is five years younger and a venture capitalist -Unable to obtain definitive information on older brother who was pre-med in college

15 Famous Middle Born Definition First born children Second born children > Middle children Only children Twins Special circumstances Conclusion Carleton "Carly" Fiorina, former CEO of Hewlett Packard Fiorina leveraged her diplomatic skills to build coalitions and consensus, for example, in the highly contentious merger between HP and Compaq Her leadership mantra: “It is not the strongest nor the smartest of the species who survive, but those who are most adaptable to change" Has one older sister and one younger brother FIRST TWO QUOTES FROM “The 50 Most Powerful Women In American Business In an age of celebrity, it may surprise you that our No. 1 woman...” Fortune Magazine, October OR LAST QUOTE FROM “The Power 50.” Fortune Magazine, October 16, OR Sibling genders, childhood anecdotes, explain why famous person is the way he/she is now, and how the famous person & his or her siblings were treated the same or different by parents: Fiorina grew up with 'a sense of no limits,' she says. Her father, a serious and intellectually rigorous law professor, shuttled the family around the world (Carly went to five high schools, including one in Ghana) and urged the three children--Carly, her older sister, and her younger brother--to speak their minds. Carly's mother, a painter, 'taught me the power of positive attitude,' she says. 'She has an unbelievable zest for life and in another era would have been a wonderful businesswoman.' Any special circumstances that might lead to divergences from the general birth order pattern. Her gender may have played as much of a role as birth order in shaping her effective leadership style (overcompensating, overly aggressive, etc.). One article took note of her overly firm handshake as a form of female compensation. How the person learned or had an epiphany about his/her strengths or weaknesses: The key to Fiorina's success is her independence. 'Had anyone told me that I was going to have a career in business, I would have said, 'No way.' ' For a time she dreamed of being a classical pianist. Then she settled on her father's fantasy: the law. 'I was in my first year of law school at UCLA,' she recalls, 'and I was in this grind, wondering, 'Why am I doing this?' ' When she flew to San Francisco and told her father she was quitting, he replied: 'Well, I'm very concerned, and I don't think you're going to amount to anything.' Says Fiorina: 'Quitting law school was the most difficult decision of my life. But I felt this great relief that this is my life and I can do what I want with it.' She bounced around, from a failed marriage in California to a gig teaching English in Bologna, Italy. At 25 she joined AT&T. Fiorina made her first mark selling telephone services to big federal agencies. Then she took the step that many thought would kill her career. She switched from the sophisticated, mainstream service side of AT&T to the equipment division, Network Systems. 'The rap on Network Systems was that it was all guys with 20-inch necks and pea-sized brains. You know, heavy metal bending,' Fiorina says, laughing. 'I went because it was a huge challenge, completely male dominated, and outside everything I'd experienced.' At first she felt jolts of culture shock. The organization was a labyrinth, and its managers were brash and openly confrontational. But Fiorina, audacious and adaptable, earned a reputation as the self-assured young globetrotter who forged complex joint ventures in Korea, Taiwan, and Japan. At 35 she became Network Systems' first-ever female officer. At 40 she was heading sales for all of North America. Then Rich McGinn took her to dinner and asked her to be the 'orchestra leader' of the pending IPO. ‘Carly is wickedly smart,' McGinn says. 'I told her that given her knowledge of the outside world and her ability to synthesize disparate flows of information, no one could do the job better.' Fiorina's main contributions were her unorthodox ways of thinking and her innate knack for selling. Says Jeff Williams, a partner at Greenhill & Co. who managed the Lucent offering when he was at Morgan Stanley: 'She had little experience with finance. She was learning while doing. But Carly is so bright. She was always urging us to think in new ways about positioning the company to investors.' Position she did. Fiorina even selected Lucent's logo. One day when Landor Associates, the company's corporate-image consultants, presented their final recommendations, Fiorina spotted a design that reminded her of her mother's abstract paintings. It's the vibrant red logo that's in Lucent's ads today. Now Fiorina is racing ahead. The only criticism you hear of her is that she's too ambitious--a crack that McGinn and Henry Schacht, Lucent's recently retired chairman, say is absurd. After the IPO, Schacht made Fiorina president of Lucent's consumer-products division, where she further proved herself by devising a strategy that eliminated her position. Fiorina decided that consumer products don't fit with Lucent's strategy; she sold 60% of the business to Dutch giant Philips. 'Remember, this is the company that invented the telephone,' Schacht says, 'so the idea of giving up that business wasn't obvious to any of us at the time. Carly made an absolutely correct decision. And she did it without knowing what her next job would be.‘ Her leadership mantra: "Challenge the mind and capture the heart."

16 Only Children Evolutionary theory First born children Second born children Middle children Only children Twins Special circumstances Conclusion Only children are often similar to first born children, and tend to be: Motivated to conform to parental expectations Achievement oriented and good students More inclined to do work themselves rather than to delegate Age gaps between siblings of more than 6 years lead each sibling to have only child attributes

17 Famous Only Child Jack Welch, Former CEO of General Electric:
Definition First born children Second born children Middle children > Only children Twins Special circumstances Conclusion Jack Welch, Former CEO of General Electric: Welch was able to make the tough decisions necessary to build GE into a successful, “boundaryless” innovator A highly disciplined worker, Welch has said “despite not being the smartest, I did have the focus to get the work done” “Many of my basic management beliefs: competing hard to win, facing reality, setting stretch goals, and relentlessly following up, can be traced to my mother” “Despite not being the smartest, I did have the focus to get the work done.” (Welch, J., Byrne, J.A. (2001). Jack: Straight From the Gut. New York: Warner Books.) “Many of my basic management beliefs - things like competing hard to win, facing reality, motivating people by alternately begging and kicking them, setting stretch goals, and relentlessly following up on people to make sure things get done - can be traced to [my mother]” (Welch, J., Byrne, J.A. (2001). Jack: Straight From the Gut. New York: Warner Books.)

18 Twins Evolutionary theory First born children Second born children Middle children Only children Twins Special circumstances Conclusion Because they are the same age (and, in the case of identical twins, share the exact same genes), twins tend to: Have closer relations with one another than other siblings Have less conflict with one another than other siblings Be different in terms of personalities and interests, but more similar to one another than other siblings Twins raised apart are even more similar than twins raised together because they don’t need to differentiate from one another

19 Famous Twin Jamie Dimon, CEO of JP Morgan Chase:
Evolutionary theory First born children Second born children Middle children Only children Twins Special circumstances Conclusion Jamie Dimon, CEO of JP Morgan Chase: Dimon achieved enormous success as a protégé of Sandy Weill and was instrumental in helping Weill build Citigroup Dimon is known as a brilliant strategic thinker, but had difficulty sharing power and credit with peers. He left Citigroup after coming into conflict with Weill’s daughter Dimon and his twin brother have one older brother Dimon has pushed for innovation, for exmaple, pushing Smith Barney into no-load mutual funds which was unprecedented “The Dimon style is an outgrowth of a passionate, obsessive personality. He talks in a cascade of broken sentences. ‘Talking to Jamie is like drinking from a fire hose,’ says Linda Bammann, head of risk management for the bank.” First two quotes from “When Jamie was only nine years old, his father, Ted, a stockbroker, asked him and his two brothers what they wanted to be when they grew up. The older boy, Peter, said he wanted to be a physician. Ted, Jamie's twin brother, said he didn't know. Then it was Jamie's turn. ‘I want to be rich,’ he replied. Says Ted, ‘He wanted to run something and have power.’” Bottom quote from

20 Special Circumstances
Evolutionary theory First born children Second born children Middle children Only children Twins Special circumstances Conclusion Other variables, such as: Gender Culture Socioeconomic factors Family size Attributes of parents Divorce, additional marriages, and half- or step- siblings …may lead to deviations from the general patterns of birth order and personality characteristics in the workplace. Therefore, the impact of birth order on personality is not a fail-safe predictor and should not be used in human resource decisions. Also, since birth order involves family background and can be related to socioeconomic status, ethnic group membership, or religious affiliation, companies should be very cautious about inquiring about the sibling structures of job candidates if they decide to do so at all.

21 Special Circumstances (Continued)
Evolutionary theory First born children Second born children Middle children Only children Twins Special circumstances Conclusion As an example of an exception to the usual birth order pattern, second born children can take on first born attributes if: There is a high degree of conflict between the first born and parents Or if the first born is: Disabled Shy

22 Conclusion Evolutionary theory First born children Second born children Middle children Only children Twins Special circumstances Conclusion Since birth order can have such a significant influence on personality, it can also help illuminate thinking and behavior in the workplace. However, because there are so many other variables that influence personality, and because birth order is part of one’s family background and can be related to religion and ethnicity, birth order should not be used as a criterion in selection or promotions. Birth order is more valuable for inspiring questions about personality and style than for providing answers.

23 Ben Dattner, Ph.D. NYU Psychology Department 6 Washington Place, Room 161G New York, NY 10003


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