Presentation on theme: "Shift work and its effect on performance. Objectives.. Definition of shift work Different shift work patterns Impact of shift work on performance Negative."— Presentation transcript:
Objectives.. Definition of shift work Different shift work patterns Impact of shift work on performance Negative consequences Positive consequences
Shift work A period of work which is performed outside the normal spread of hours, particularly when a factory or business operates on a 24 hour basis Includes both long-term night shifts and work schedules in which employees change or rotate shifts According to Labour Force Survey of Spring (1997) 1. 3.6 million UK workers usually worked shifts 2. Shift work was only slightly more prevalent for men than for women
Shift Work Patterns 1. “Three-shift system” 2. “Four on, four off” 4 days, 12 h shifts, then 4 days off 3..“Four on, two off” only 2 days off 7-day period (56 hours) 12-hour shifts 4. “Two days, two nights, four off” 12-hour shifts from 7am-7pm on day shifts and from 7pm-7am on nights 5. “12/24/12/48” shifts of 12 hours; first a daily shift, followed by 12 h rest, then a night shift, finishing with 24 h rest
6. “Continental shift Three-shift system usually worked for 7 days straight, after which employee is given time off 7. “Split shift” 4 hours in the morning, then 4 hours in the evening 8. “Earlies and lates” two shift that largely overlap 9. “7-day fortnight shift” Employees work their chosen hours within 7 days 41 hours per week equate to 82 hours per fortnight (14 days and nights) Worked in 7 days, at 11-12 hours per shift 10. “DuPont 12 Hour Rotating Shift” 24/7 coverage; 4 crews and 12 hour shifts 11. “Seven Day Eight Hour Rotating Shifts” Provides 24/7 coverage using 8 hour shifts with 4 crews
Shift work and Performance Studies in the UK have found that compared with day workers, shift workers: Suffer 2 to 5 times the rate of stomach disorders Are 40% more likely to suffer from cardiovascular disease Suffer from peptic ulcers at an early age Suffer from more anxiety and depression Are more likely to die younger Older versus younger subjects An Australian study found worker age a factor in shift work performance. Comparing performance during shift work between different age group (twenties vs forties), showed that the older group had a significant decrease in performance during night shifts, while the younger subjects in their twenties were able to maintain performance during day and night shifts. The results also showed that the older group performed lower than the younger group in a 12-hour shift.
Undesirable consequences for those working shift, include: Disruption of the internal body clock Poor sexual performance Sleep deprivation appears to aggravate job stress, and/or workers ability to cope with it. It also affects peoples’ motivation and attitude. Absenteeism, tardiness and carelessness are common to irritable shift workers. Sleeping difficulties and fatigue, which can affect their reaction time and concentration, as well as they may be less alert and may make ill-judged decisions, and increase the likelihood of errors
The consequences of fatigue problems can be fatal E.g. the effects of fatigue on the quality of police line-ups. As police officers engage in shift work, their performance in multiple areas is likely to be influenced by fatigue. If an officer is tired or working under pressing deadlines, it is possible that the quality of the line-up may be significantly reduced. Further, the quality of the interview can greatly influence rates of false identification. Therefore, the importance of high quality line-ups is essential to protecting the rights of the innocent. Research has shown that fatigued suspects are more likely to falsely confess to a crime that they did not commit than suspects who are not tired. The incidence of accidents and injuries has been found to be higher on night shifts E.g. The Clapham Junction Rail accident in 1988.
Benefits of shift work in on performance (hospitals) Shift work can improve patient care as, shifts change, so tired staff can be relieved by ‘fresh’ staff and therefore the standard of care remains consistent and affective. Shift work helps targets to be achieved, especially in hospitals, as there may be a sense of shared work, instead of one person responsible for a piece of work which needs to be completed before their day ends, in other words, work can be handed over, which is improving performance overall. Society today has become a 24 hour phenomena, so it is essential for hospitals to have shift work, as they need to be open all the time, to cater to society’s needs. Shift work is the only way affective way to cater for this need. Shift work provides freedom to staff, for family life etc, especially to people with children. For example, nurses working a nightshift can be available for their kids during the day.
How to manage the effectives of shift work to improve performance Get quality sleep after the shift, no disturbances, thick curtains so no light, quiet and comfortable. Adequate support from management, family and friends. Exercise to reduce stress.. Obviously not straight after the shift!