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1 STRATIFIED SAMPLING

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2 1. Stratification: The elements in the population are divided into layers/groups/ strata based on their values on one/several auxiliary variables. The strata must be non- overlapping and together constitute the whole population. 2. Sampling within strata: Samples are selected independently from each stratum. Different selection methods can be used in different strata.

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3 Ex. Stratification of individuals by age group StratumAge group 117 or younger 218-24 325-34 435-44 545-54 655-64 765 or older

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4 Stratum 1: Northern Sweden Ex. Regional stratification Stratum 2: Mid- Sweden Stratum 3: Southern Sweden

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5 Ex. Stratification of individuals by age group and region StratumAge groupRegion 117 or youngerNorthern 217 or youngerMid 317 or youngerSouthern 418-24Northern 518-24Mid 618-24Southern etc.

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6 Gain in precision. If the strata are more homogenous with respect to the study variable(s) than the population as a whole, the precision of the estimates will improve. Strata = domains of study. Precision requirements of estimates for certain subpopulations/domains can be assured by using domains as strata. WHY STRATIFY?

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7 Practical reasons. For instance nonresponse rates, method of measurement and the quality of auxiliary information may differ between subpopulations, and can be efficiently handled by stratification. Administrative reasons. The survey organization may be divided into geographical districts that makes it natural to let each district be a stratum. WHY STRATIFY?, cont’d

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8 ESTIMATION Assume a population divided into H strata of sizes. Independently, a sample of size n h is selected from each stratum. = y-value for element j in stratum h = population total for stratum h = sample mean for stratum h

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9 ESTIMATION OF A TOTAL Assume: SRS within all strata.

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10 ESTIMATION OF A TOTAL Assume: SRS within all strata. In general: What is the variance of this estimator?

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11 VARIANCE OF THE ESTIMATOR OF A TOTAL Principle: Add the variances of the estimators for each stratum. A legitimate approach since samples are selected independently from each stratum. Remember: if X, Y are independent random variables.

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12 VARIANCE OF THE ESTIMATOR OF A TOTAL, cont’d Result: One term per stratum Finite population correction (one per stratum!) where

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13 ESTIMATION OF THE VARIANCE OF THE ESTIMATOR OF A TOTAL Principle: Estimate what’s unknown in the variance formula. where

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14 ESTIMATORS FOR A MEAN Note: Start from the estimators for a total!

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15 ESTIMATORS FOR A MEAN, cont’d Note: Start from the estimators for a total!

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16 ESTIMATORS FOR A PROPORTION Note: Like the estimators for a mean, only with y a 0/1-variable!

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17 IMPORTANT DESIGN CHOICES IN STRATIFIED SAMPLING Stratification variable(s) Number of strata Sample size in each stratum (allocation) Sampling design in each stratum Estimator for each stratum

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