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Chapter 5 Climate and Terrestrial Biodiversity. Chapter Overview Questions  What factors the earth’s climate?  How does climate determine where the.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5 Climate and Terrestrial Biodiversity. Chapter Overview Questions  What factors the earth’s climate?  How does climate determine where the."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 5 Climate and Terrestrial Biodiversity

2 Chapter Overview Questions  What factors the earth’s climate?  How does climate determine where the earth’s major biome’s are found?  What are the major types of desert biomes?  What are the major types of grassland biomes?

3 Chapter Overview Questions (cont’d)  What are the major types of forest and mountain biomes?  How have human activities affected the world’s desert, grassland, forest, and mountain biomes?

4 Updates Online The latest references for topics covered in this section can be found at the book companion website. Log in to the book’s e-resources page at to access InfoTrac articles.  InfoTrac: Of Chicks and Frogs. Steven Pinker. Forbes, August 14, 2006 v178 i3 p40.  InfoTrac: Nice Rats, Nasty Rats: Maybe It's All In the Genes. Nicholas Wade. The New York Times, July 25, 2006 pF1(L).  InfoTrac: Ancient shrub unlocks a clue to Darwin's 'abominable mystery.’ The Christian Science Monitor, May 18, 2006 p02.  The Jane Goodall Institute  Natural History Museum: Ancient Birds

5 Core Case Study Blowing in the Wind: A Story of Connections  Wind connects most life on earth. Keeps tropics from being unbearably hot. Keeps tropics from being unbearably hot. Prevents rest of world from freezing. Prevents rest of world from freezing. Figure 5-1

6 Wind: Case Study  Wind blows Sahara desert nutrients to Bahamas and Brazil.  Wind blows iron from Gobi Desert to Pacific Ocean which nourishes the phytoplankton  SUVs destroy sand crust and wind blows increased amounts of sediment  Wind transports viruses, molds, bacteria and fungi

7 CLIMATE: A BRIEF INTRODUCTION  Weather is a local area’s short-term physical conditions such as temperature and precipitation.  Climate is a region’s average weather conditions over a long time. Latitude and elevation help determine climate. Latitude and elevation help determine climate.

8 Earth’s Current Climate Zones Figure 5-2

9 Solar Energy and Global Air Circulation: Distributing Heat  FOUR FACTORS that determine global air patterns

10 Solar Energy and Global Air Circulation: Distributing Heat  Global air circulation is affected by the uneven heating of the earth’s surface by solar energy, seasonal changes in temperature and precipitation. Figure 5-3

11 Fig. 5-3, p. 102 Spring (sun aims directly at equator) Fall (sun aims directly at equator) Summer (northern hemisphere tilts toward sun) Solar radiation 23.5 ° Winter (northern hemisphere tilts away from sun)

12 Coriolis Effect  Global air circulation is affected by the rotation of the earth on its axis. Figure 5-4

13 Fig. 5-4, p. 102 Cold deserts Equator Cold deserts Forests Hot desertsSoutheast trades Westerlies Forests Westerlies Hot desertsNortheast trades

14 Convection Currents  Global air circulation is affected by the properties of air water, and land. Figure 5-5

15 Fig. 5-5, p. 103 Warm, dry air Flows toward low pressure, picks up moisture and heat Moist surface warmed by sun HIGH PRESSURE LOW PRESSURE Falls, is compressed, warms Rises, expands, cools HIGH PRESSURE Heat released radiates to space LOW PRESSURE Condensation and precipitation Cool, dry air Hot, wet air

16 Convection Cells  Heat and moisture are distributed over the earth’s surface by vertical currents, which form six giant convection cells at different latitudes. Figure 5-6

17 Fig. 5-6, p. 103 Cell 3 North Moist air rises — rain Cell 2 North Cool, dry air falls Cell 1 North Moist air rises, cools, and releases Moisture as rain Cell 1 South Cool, dry air falls Cell 2 South Moist air rises — rain Cell 3 South Cold, dry air falls Polar cap Temperate deciduous forest and grassland Desert Tropical deciduous forest Tropical rain forest Equator Tropical deciduous forest Cold, dry air falls Polar cap Arctic tundra Evergreen coniferous forest Temperate deciduous forest and grassland Desert 60° 30° 0° 30° 60°

18 4 Factors affecting Global Air Circulation 1.Uneven heating of the Earth’s surface 1.“Denser” light shines on equator 2.Seasonal changes in temperature and precipitation 3.Rotation of the Earth on its axis 1.Equator spins faster than poles creating Coriolis effect 4.Properties of air, water and land 1.Cyclical convection cells created

19 Ocean Currents: Distributing Heat and Nutrients  Ocean currents influence climate by distributing heat from place to place and mixing and distributing nutrients. Figure 5-7

20 Fig. 5-7, p. 104 (c) As concentrations of greenhouse gases rise, their molecules absorb and emit more infrared radiation, which adds more heat to the lower atmosphere. (b) The earth's surface absorbs much of the incoming solar radiation and degrades it to longer-wavelength infrared (IR) radiation, which rises into the lower atmosphere. Some of this IR radiation escapes into space as heat, and some is absorbed by molecules of greenhouse gases and emitted as even longer-wavelength IR radiation, which warms the lower atmosphere. (a) Rays of sunlight penetrate the lower atmosphere and warm the earth's surface.

21 Ocean Currents: Distributing Heat and Nutrients  Global warming: Considerable scientific evidence and climate models indicate that large inputs of greenhouse gases from anthropogenic activities into the troposphere can enhance the natural greenhouse effect and change the earth’s climate in your lifetime. Considerable scientific evidence and climate models indicate that large inputs of greenhouse gases from anthropogenic activities into the troposphere can enhance the natural greenhouse effect and change the earth’s climate in your lifetime.

22 ATMOSPHERE GASES AND CLIMATE  Greenhouse gases allows visible light and UV to pass through, but absorbs some of the returning Infrared light and returns it at a longer wavelength

23 GREENHOUSE GASES  Water vapor: H 2 O  Carbon Dioxide: CO 2  Methane: CH 4  Nitrous oxide: N 2 O

24 GREENHOUSE GASES  Could result in: change in precipitation patterns change in precipitation patterns shift in cropland shift in cropland rise in sea levels rise in sea levels change in areas where some plants and animals live change in areas where some plants and animals live

25 Topography and Local Climate: Land Matters  Interactions between land and oceans and disruptions of airflows by mountains and cities affect local climates. Figure 5-8

26 Fig. 5-8, p. 105 Prevailing winds pick up moisture from an ocean. Dry habitats Moist habitats On the leeward side of the mountain range, air descends, warms, and Releases little moisture. On the windward side of a mountain range, air rises, cools, and releases moisture. A RAIN SHADOW IS FORMED

27 Heat and Water  Heat is absorbed and released more slowly by water than by land  This means coastal areas and large lakes have weather moderated by the water.

28 BIOMES: CLIMATE AND LIFE ON LAND  Different climates lead to different communities of organisms, especially vegetation. Biomes – large terrestrial regions characterized by similar climate, soil, plants, and animals. Biomes – large terrestrial regions characterized by similar climate, soil, plants, and animals. Each biome contains many ecosystems whose communities have adapted to differences in climate, soil, and other environmental factors. Each biome contains many ecosystems whose communities have adapted to differences in climate, soil, and other environmental factors.

29 BIOMES: CLIMATE AND LIFE ON LAND Figure 5-9

30 Fig. 5-9, p. 106 Polar ice Equator Tropic of Capricorn Tropic of Cancer High mountains Polar grassland (arctic tundra) Temperate grassland Tropical grassland (savanna) Chaparral Coniferous forest Temperate deciduous forest Tropical forest Desert

31 Climate change is part of history Change caused by solar output, volcanic eruptions, and continents moving. 5,000 years ago part of Saharan Desert was fertile 15,000 years ago arid Western US was rainy and contained many lakes Evidence that we are changing climate in years

32 BIOMES: CLIMATE AND LIFE ON LAND  Biome type is determined by precipitation, temperature and soil type Figure 5-10

33 Fig. 5-10, p. 107 Polar Rain forest Tropical seasonal forest Scrubland Savanna Desert Tropical Grassland Chaparral Deciduous Forest Coniferous forest Desert Temperate Subpolar Tundra Wet Cold Dry Hot

34 Tropical = hot Temperate = moderate Polar = cold

35 Biomes Biomes are not uniform Contain a mosaic of patches with somewhat different biological communities with similarities unique to the biome

36 BIOMES: CLIMATE AND LIFE ON LAND  Parallel changes occur in vegetation type occur when we travel from the equator to the poles or from lowlands to mountaintops. Figure 5-11

37 Fig. 5-11, p. 108 Mountain ice and snow Elevation Tundra (herbs, lichens, mosses) Coniferous Forest Deciduous Forest Tropical Forest Tropical Forest Deciduous Forest Coniferous Forest Tundra (herbs, lichens, mosses) Polar ice and snow Latitude

38 DESERT BIOMES  Deserts are areas where evaporation exceeds precipitation.  Deserts have little precipitation and little vegetation.  Where are they found? Found in tropical, temperate and polar regions. Found in tropical, temperate and polar regions.  Desert plants have adaptations that help them stay cool and get enough water.

39 DESERT BIOMES  Variations in annual temperature (red) and precipitation (blue) in tropical, temperate and cold deserts. Figure 5-12

40 Deserts  Cover about 30% of the earth’s land surface  Found mainly in tropical and subtropical regions  Largest Deserts found in the interiors of continents, far from moist sea air  Or form in Rain Shadows

41 Deserts not Desserts  Sun bakes ground in day  At night, heat radiates quickly from rocks to atmosphere  Without moisture in the soil, the heat is not stored  This allows you to bake in the day, and freeze during the nights

42 Fig. 5-12a, p. 109 Tropical Desert Mean monthly temperature (  C) Mean monthly precipitation (mm) Month Freezing point Hot and Dry most of the year. Example: Sahara and Namib

43 Fig. 5-12b, p. 109 Temperate Desert Mean monthly temperature (  C) Mean monthly precipitation (mm) Month Freezing point Day temps high in summer and low in winter. Example: Mojave desert

44 Fig. 5-12c, p. 109 Polar Desert Mean monthly precipitation (mm) Month Freezing point Mean monthly temperature (°C) Cold Deserts: Cold winters, warm summers, sparse vegetation Example: Gobi Desert in China

45 DESERT BIOMES  The flora and fauna in desert ecosystems adapt to their environment through their behavior and physiology. Figure 5-13

46 Fig. 5-13, p. 110 Producer to primary consumer Primary to secondary consumer Secondary to higher-level consumer All producers and consumers to decomposers Kangaroo rat Diamondback rattlesnake Fungi Bacteria Darkling Beetle Roadrunner Prickly pear cactus Agave Gambel's Quail Collared lizard Jack rabbit Yucca Red-tailed hawk

47 Deserts Evergreen plants conserve water by having wax coated leaves that reduce water loss Wildflowers and grasses store much of their biomass in seeds that remain inactive until they receive enough water to germinate

48 Deserts Most animals are small They hide in cool burrows or rocky crevices by day and come out at night or early morning Others are dormant during extreme heat Insects and reptiles have thick outer coverings to minimize water loss –Their wastes are dry or concentrated urine

49 Deserts are Fragile Soils take a long time to heal Low diversity Slow nutrient cycling Slow plant growth Tank tracks are still visible in the Mojave desert from 1940s

50 GRASSLANDS AND CHAPARRAL BIOMES  Variations in annual temperature (red) and precipitation (blue). Figure 5-14

51 GRASSLANDS AND CHAPARRAL BIOMES  Grasslands (prairies) occur in areas too moist for desert and too dry for forests.  Savannas are tropical grasslands with scattered tree and herds of hoofed animals.  Maintained by seasonal drought, grazing and occasional fires

52 Fig. 5-14a, p. 112 Tropical grassland (savanna) Mean monthly temperature (  C) Mean monthly precipitation (mm) Month Freezing point Savanna Overgrazing and use of firewood is converting savannas to deserts

53 Fig. 5-14b, p. 112 Temperate grassland Mean monthly temperature (  C) Mean monthly precipitation (mm) Month Freezing point Prairies Netted roots hold mesh of organic material in, unless it is plowed and allowed to blow away Fires burn top layer of plants, but not the roots

54 Temperate Grasslands  The cold winters and hot dry summers have deep and fertile soil that make them ideal for growing crops and grazing cattle. Figure 5-15

55 Temperate Grasslands Most have been converted to cropland Or raise cattle Or build towns and cities

56 Temperate Grasslands  Temperate tall- grass prairie ecosystem in North America. Figure 5-16

57 Fig. 5-15, p. 113 Golden eagle Pronghorn antelope Grasshopper Prairie Coneflower Fungi Bacteria Prairie dog Blue stem grass Grasshopper sparrow Coyote Producer to primary consumer Primary to secondary consumer Secondary to higher-level consumer All producers and consumers to decomposers

58 Fig. 5-14c, p. 112 Polar grassland (arctic tundra) Mean monthly temperature (  C) Mean monthly precipitation (mm) Month Freezing point Arctic Tundra

59 Polar Grasslands  Polar grasslands are covered with ice and snow except during a brief summer. Figure 5-17

60 Fig. 5-17, p. 114 Moss campion Mountain Cranberry Lemming Dwarf Willow Willow ptarmigan Horned lark Arctic fox Snowy owl Mosquito Grizzly bear Long-tailed jaeger Caribou Producer to primary consumer Primary to secondary consumer Secondary to higher-level consumer All producers and consumers to decomposers

61 Arctic Tundra Treeless Bitterly cold winters Frigid winds Covered by ice and snow Long, dark winters Low levels of precipitation

62 Arctic Tundra Thick, spongy mat of low-growing plants –Grasses, mosses, lichens, and dwarf shrubs Most Growth occurs in 6-8 weeks of summer

63 PERMAFROST Water trapped in soil that stays frozen for more than 2 years –Prevents summer melt from soaking in and creates summer lakes, marshes, bogs and ponds Insects and migratory birds thrive in summer wetlands Global Warming causing parts of permafrost to melt (Alaska)

64 Tundra Scars Short growing season leads to slow recovery Arctic exploration and development: oil and diamonds –Leads to scars that will last for centuries

65 Chaparral  Chaparral has a moderate climate but its dense thickets of spiny shrubs are subject to periodic fires. Figure 5-18

66 Temperate Shrubland: Chaparral  Dense growth of low-growing evergreen shrubs and occasional small trees with leathery leaves Soil is thin and not very fertile Soil is thin and not very fertile Characterized by Manzanita bushes Characterized by Manzanita bushes Red bark that peels off (look for it on the hike)Red bark that peels off (look for it on the hike)  Found in certain coastal areas (SB and LA too)  Long, dry summers lead to flammable conditions

67 You are on your own for the forest biomes Don’t forget to study about all of the biodiversity

68 FOREST BIOMES  Variations in annual temperature (red) and precipitation (blue) in tropical, temperate, and polar forests. Figure 5-19

69 Fig. 5-19a, p. 116 Tropical rain forest Mean monthly temperature (  C) Mean monthly precipitation (mm) Month Freezing point

70 Fig. 5-19b, p. 116 Temperate deciduous forest Mean monthly temperature (  C) Mean monthly precipitation (mm) Month Freezing point

71 Fig. 5-19c, p. 116 Polar evergreen coniferous forest (boreal forest, taiga) Mean monthly temperature (  C) Mean monthly precipitation (mm) Month Freezing point

72 FOREST BIOMES  Forests have enough precipitation to support stands of trees and are found in tropical, temperate, and polar regions.

73 Tropical Rain Forest  Tropical rain forests have heavy rainfall and a rich diversity of species. Found near the equator. Found near the equator. Have year-round uniformity warm temperatures and high humidity. Have year-round uniformity warm temperatures and high humidity. Figure 5-20

74 Fig. 5-20, p. 117 Blue and gold macaw Climbing monstera palm Slaty-tailed trogon Harpy eagle BromeliadBacteria Fungi Ants Tree frog Green tree snake Katydid Squirrel monkeys Ocelot Producer to primary consumer Primary to secondary consumer Secondary to higher-level consumer All producers and consumers to decomposers

75 Tropical Rain Forest  Filling such niches enables species to avoid or minimize competition and coexist Figure 5-21

76 Fig. 5-21, p. 118 Ground layer Black-crowned antipitta Brazilian tapir Woolly opossum Toco toucan Shrub layer Understory Canopy Emergent layer Height (meters) Harpy eagle

77 Temperate Deciduous Forest  Most of the trees survive winter by dropping their leaves, which decay and produce a nutrient- rich soil. Figure 5-22

78 Fig. 5-22, p. 120 Producer to primary consumer Primary to secondary consumer Secondary to higher-level consumer All producers and consumers to decomposers Wood frog Racer May beetle Bacteria Fungi Long-tailed weasel Shagbark hickory Mountain Winterberry Metallic wood-boring beetle and Larvae White-tailed deer White-footed mouse Gray Squirrel Hairy Woodpecker White oak Broad-winged hawk

79 Evergreen Coniferous Forests  Consist mostly of cone-bearing evergreen trees that keep their needles year-round to help the trees survive long and cold winters. Figure 5-23

80 Fig. 5-23, p. 121 Bunchberry Bacteria Starflower Fungi Snowshoe hare Pine sawyer beetle and larvae Bebb willow Wolf White Spruce Moose Marten Great horned owl Blue jay Balsam fir Producer to primary consumer Primary to secondary consumer Secondary to higher-level consumer All producers and consumers to decomposers

81 Temperate Rain Forests  Coastal areas support huge cone-bearing evergreen trees such as redwoods and Douglas fir in a cool moist environment. Figure 5-24

82 Temperate Rain Forest  Mendocino and Humboldt County  Many beautiful redwoods  It is worth your time to visit the area  Jedediah Smith Park with the Smith River is one of my favorites  I used to live in Richardson Grove State Park on Highway 1 at the south end of Humboldt

83 MOUNTAIN BIOMES  High-elevation islands of biodiversity  Often have snow- covered peaks that reflect solar radiation and gradually release water to lower- elevation streams and ecosystems. Figure 5-25

84 HUMAN IMPACTS ON TERRESTRIAL BIOMES  Human activities have damaged or disturbed more than half of the world’s terrestrial ecosystems.  Humans have had a number of specific harmful effects on the world’s deserts, grasslands, forests, and mountains.

85 Human Impacts  Estimated that we use, waste or destroy about 10-55% of net primary productivity or terrestrial ecosystems  Producers determine the number of consumers  60% of terrestrial ecosystems are being degraded or used unsustainably

86 Fig. 5-26, p. 123 Natural Capital Degradation Desert Large desert cities Soil destruction by off-road vehicles Soil salinization from irrigation Depletion of groundwater Land disturbance and pollution from mineral extraction

87 Fig. 5-27, p. 123 Oil production and off-road vehicles in arctic tundra Overgrazing by livestock Release of CO 2 to atmosphere from grassland burning Conversion to cropland Grasslands Natural Capital Degradation

88 Fig. 5-28, p. 124 Clearing for agriculture, livestock grazing, timber, and urban development Conversion of diverse forests to tree plantations Damage from off-road vehicles Natural Capital Degradation Forests Pollution of forest streams

89 Fig. 5-29, p. 124 Natural Capital Degradation Mountains Agriculture Timber extraction Mineral extraction Hydroelectric dams and reservoirs Increasing tourism Urban air pollution Increased ultraviolet radiation from ozone depletion Soil damage from off-road vehicles

90 Tentative Homework learn pg Critical Thinking #2 (will help you identify items in a system) #4 (similar to FRQ on the exam) #6 (helps you apply the information that you read) Projects #1 (knowing about your environment can help you answer questions on the FRQ section


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