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Response to Intervention (RtI): Evidenced-based Practices and Technology Particularly the Ipad and Tablet Devices Dr. Betsy Flener Copyright Betsy Flener.

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Presentation on theme: "Response to Intervention (RtI): Evidenced-based Practices and Technology Particularly the Ipad and Tablet Devices Dr. Betsy Flener Copyright Betsy Flener."— Presentation transcript:

1 Response to Intervention (RtI): Evidenced-based Practices and Technology Particularly the Ipad and Tablet Devices Dr. Betsy Flener Copyright Betsy Flener Ed.D. 2012

2 Definition Response to Intervention is an effort to improve the academic and behavior skills of students. It is a data-based decision making program that monitors how well students respond to instruction Copyright Betsy Flener Ed.D. 2012

3 Core Components School wide screening of all students Effective early intervention Evidenced-based interventions Continuous progress monitoring Depending on progress, the intensity of intervention may increase Interventions and decisions are data driven Copyright Betsy Flener Ed.D. 2012

4 Typical Screening and Monitoring Tools/ Issues AIMS Web Curriculum Based Measurement in Reading DIBELS easy CBM mClass Math Orchard Software Star and Star Enterprise Scholastic Vanderbilt RtI Monitor Copyright Betsy Flener Ed.D. 2012

5 The Case for Students with Visual Impairments RtI can benefit all students Students are at a loss if we wait to intervene Percentage of unemployed working age individuals with visual impairments Data showing the disturbing percentages of students with visual impairments in grades 3 through 10 who do poorly on statewide reading achievement tests Copyright Betsy Flener Ed.D. 2012

6 Levels Tier 1: Quality Classroom Instruction Provide ACCESS to and progress in the general education curriculum Differentiate instruction Apply Universal Design for Learning to traditional strategies Front-load learning to increase student success Copyright Betsy Flener Ed.D. 2012

7 Access Appropriate selection of literacy media Text to speech (i.e. Read and Write Gold, Kurzweil 1000, Kurzweil 3000) Audio and screen readers Use of optical devices Screen magnification hardware and software Technology to access Interactive Boards and White Boards Use of Ipads, Kindles, Nooks etc. Keyboarding skills, note takers, apps for writing and note taking. Copyright Betsy Flener Ed.D. 2012

8 Apps for Access with the IPad Built in Accessibility – Zoom – VoiceOver – Various other features Magnification – Easy Reader – iMagGlass – Magnifier – ICanSeeFree Copyright Betsy Flener Ed.D. 2012

9 Apps for Access (Cont’d) Accessing Interactive and White Boards – Doceri Software for Mac and Ipad ($30.00 – iDisplay ($4.99) – JoinMe (free) – Tether (free for Mac) – Splashtop Whiteboard ($19.99) – Team Viewer HD (free) Copyright Betsy Flener Ed.D. 2011

10 Apps for Access (cont’d) Presentations – Keynote ($9.99) – SlideShare (use SlidebySlide App that is free) – SlideShark (free and great reviews) – SlidePad ($3.99) Copyright Betsy Flener Ed.D. 2012

11 Apps for Access (cont’d) Apps for Writing – Penultimate ($0.99) – PaperDesk ($3.99) – Smart Writing Tool ($8.99) – Notability ($0.99) – Notetaker HD ($4.99) Copyright Betsy Flener Ed.D. 2012

12 Apps for Access (cont’d) Recording – Audionote ($4.99) – Notability ($0.99) – Dragon Dictation (free and this is a phenomenal App) – QuickVoice ($2.99) Copyright Betsy Flener Ed.D. 2012

13 Differentiated Instruction Approach teaching and learning for diverse learners Alterations in curriculum, instruction, and assessment Recognizing students’ varying background knowledge, readiness, language, preferences, and interest Copyright Betsy Flener Ed.D. 2012

14 Levels (cont’d) Tier 2: Focused, aligned, and targeted supplemental instruction Differentiated, scaffolded, and targeted instruction Small group size Careful monitoring and charting May change variables: time of day, group size, additional time, focus/instruction, materials/ curriculum Copyright Betsy Flener Ed.D. 2012

15 Levels (cont’d) Tier 3: Intensive interventions Instruction provided by a reading specialist, special educator, or other person qualified to teach students who struggle Homogeneous or small group instruction and/ or individual instruction Often 30 to 60 more minutes added to instruction child is receiving in the general curriculum Copyright Betsy Flener Ed.D. 2012

16 Evidenced-based for Visually Impaired: Reading and Writing 1. Braille readers may be better able to process oral information than large-type readers (Brothers, 1971). 2. Haptic perception is sustained over time (Anater, 1980), suggesting that concrete hands-on experiences might enhance learning. 3. Reading Braille with the left hand may be more effective than reading it with the right hand (Hermelin & O'Connor, 1971). 4. Reducing the number of words in a Braille reading passage may not result in increased speed or comprehension (Martin & Bassin, 1977) Copyright Betsy Flener Ed.D. 2012

17 Evidenced based for VI (cont’d) 5. Poor Braille quality can slow down reading rate and accuracy (Millar, 1977,1987). 6. Drill-and-practice in Braille can lead to increased reading achievement, faster silent and oral reading rates, fewer reading errors, and greater comprehension (Flanagan, 1966; Flanagan & Joslin, 1969; Kederis, Nolan, & Morris, 1967; Layton & Koenig, 1998; Mangold, 1978; Umsted, 1972). 7. Braille reading comprehension decreases when other stimuli compete for the student’s attention (Millar, 1988,1990). Copyright Betsy Flener Ed.D. 2012

18 Evidenced-based for VI (cont’d) 8. Leaving out words might decrease the amount of time it takes to read, but it does not increase comprehension, although it has a greater impact on news passages than it does on science or fiction passages (Martin & Bassin, 1977). 9. Training in and use of low-vision devices increases oral comcomprehension, reading speed (oral and silent), and the amount of reading accomplished (Corn, Wall, & Bell, 2001; Lackey, Efron, & Rowls, 1982; LaGrow, 1981; Smith & Erin, 2002). Copyright Betsy Flener Ed.D. 2012

19 Evidenced-based Practices for Students with Visual Impairments: Math 1.Use of concrete mathematics aids can increase computation accuracy (Beicastro, 1993; Champion, 1976/77; Hatlen, 1975). 2. Comprehension of mathematics concepts can be increased with use of the Talking Calculator (Champion, 1976/77). 3. The English Language Grammar Method (a method of teaching mathematics by comparing it to English sentence structures, based on the work of Thorndike [1924] ), may improve computation (Sharpton, 1977). Copyright Betsy Flener Ed.D. 2012

20 Evidenced-based for VI (cont’d) 4. Instruction in finger-math (using the fingers for computation) may increase computation accuracy (Maddux, Gates, & Sowell, 1984). 5. There is conflicting evidence concerning the effectiveness of the abacus (Kapperman, 1974, Nolan & Morris, 1964). 6. Computation using the Braille writer may be more accurate than either mental calculation or use of the abacus (Kapperman, 1974). Copyright Betsy Flener Ed.D. 2012

21 Additional Studies Emerson et al. (2009) examined the factors of age, etiology of visual impairment, family attitudes and behaviors regarding literacy activities, class size, and time spent with a teacher of students with visual impairments blindness Clark-Bischke & Stoner (2009) examined the spelling skills in the written compositions of 20 students who read braille. Wetzel and Knowlton (2000) compared the reading rates of 24 adult print readers and 23 adult braille readers on three reading tasks: oral reading, silent reading, and studying. Copyright Betsy Flener Ed.D. 2012

22 Studies (cont’d) Eskenazi (2011) studied scaffolding and telegraphic text in an attempt to increase reading speeds of deaf-blind and blind consumers – Reading rates incrased when non-essential words were removed from story – Identified list of concrete words to removed – Scaffolding allowed more people to remember more details but did not improve reading rate Copyright Betsy Flener Ed.D. 2012

23 Evidenced-based Program specifically for VI Mangold Developmental Program of Tactual Perception and Braille Letter Recognition Copyright Betsy Flener Ed.D. 2012

24 Adapted Programs for Visually Impaired Read Naturally (are working on an App) Wilson Reading Reading Recovery (can be easily adapted) Copyright Betsy Flener Ed.D. 2012

25 Additional Approaches Cloze procedure Language experience Fluency Shared reading Paired reading Echo Reading Copyright Betsy Flener Ed.D. 2012

26 Best Literacy Practices according to the International Reading Association Authentic meaning, reading for pleasure, to accomplish a task High quality literature Integrate a comprehensive word study/ phonics program into reading and writing instruction Multiple texts that link and expand concepts Balanced teacher and student led discussion Copyright Betsy Flener Ed.D. 2012

27 Best Literacy Practices (cont’d) Build a whole class community that emphasizes important concepts and builds background knowledge Work with students in small groups while others read and write about what they have read Give students plenty of time to read in class Give students direct instruction in decoding and comprehension strategies, balance direct instruction, guided reading, and independent learning Use a variety of assessment techniques Copyright Betsy Flener Ed.D. 2012

28 Apps that Assess Reading Deficiencies Reading Remedies ($0.99) Smarty Pants School ($9.99) Copyright Betsy Flener Ed.D. 2012

29 Apps for Literacy Instruction Print Awareness – Book Creator ($4.99) – Pictello ($18.99) – Scribble Press (free) – Read with Me (awesome for parents) Phonological Awareness – Word Wizard ($1.99) – Five Sharks Swimming in the Pond ($2.99) – SuperWhy ($2.99) – ABC Pocket Phonics ($2.99) – Teacher Created Activities with Sounding Board Copyright Betsy Flener Ed.D. 2012

30 Apps for Literacy Instruction Engaging Students – I Like Books (free) – Itsy Bitsy Spider ($1.99) – The Monster at the End of this Book ($3.99) – The Cat in the Hat Books (free for Lite versions) – Little Critter Books (some are ($0.99) – Old MacDonald Had a Farm ($1.99) – Trucks ($1.99) – ReadMeStories (free for Lite) Copyright Betsy Flener Ed.D. 2012

31 Apps for Literacy Instruction Fluency Reading Rainbow (free with subscription Dr. Seuss Books TumblebooktoGo Munsch 6pk ($5.95) Phonics – Interactive Alphabet ($2.99) – Phonics Genius (free) – PhonicsRead with McGuffey Lite (free) – My Word Reader ($4.99) Copyright Betsy Flener Ed.D. 2012

32 Apps for Literacy Instruction Comprehension – Reading Sketch (Lite version is free) – Learning A-Z – Various Books mentioned Writing – Story Builder ($7.99) – Scribbe Press (free) – Sentence Builder ($5.99) Copyright Betsy Flener Ed.D. 2012

33 Tools for Fluency Timer on Fire ($0.99) Fluency Timer (free) Timed Reading ($1.99) Copyright Betsy Flener Ed.D. 2012

34 Apps for Older Students AudioNote ($4.99) Evernote (free) Scratch Work (free) Copyright Betsy Flener Ed.D. 2012

35 Considerations Time Visual field defects Fatigue Color Clutter and complexity Contrast Copyright Betsy Flener Ed.D. 2012

36 Considerations (cont’d) Size of image The need for descriptions Appropriate tactile images Copyright Betsy Flener Ed.D. 2012

37 References Clark-Bischke, C. & Stoner, J. (2009). An investigation of spelling in the written compositions of students who read braille. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 103 (10),553-563. Emerson, R. E., Sitar, D. Erin, J. N., Wormsley, D.P., & Herlich, S. L. The effects of consistent structured reading instruction on high and low literacy achievement in young children who are blind, Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 103 (10), 595-609. Erin, J.N. & Koenig, A. (1998). The student with a visual disability and learning disability. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 30 (10), 309-320. Eskenazi, M. (2011) Increasing braille radio reading speed for deaf-blind consumers. Retrieved from: http://www.nprlabs.org/media/research/ar/br/Increasing%20Braille% 20Radio%20Reading%20Speed_NIDRR_ICART_Eskenazi.pdf Ferrell, K. (2006).Evidenced-based practices for students with visual disabilities. Copyright Betsy Flener Ed.D. 2012

38 References Response to intervention procedural manual. Franklin County Schools, TN. franklincountyschools.k12tn.net/RTI.pdf Response to intervention (RTI). www.nickey.org/Pages/RTI.aspxwww.nickey.org/Pages/RTI.aspx Texas school a key partner in developing resources for blind and visually impaired students. www.readnaturally.com/company/news_brailletx.htm. www.readnaturally.com/company/news_brailletx.htm What is evidenced-based reading instruction? http://www.reading.org/Libraries/Position_Statements_and_R esolutions/ps1055_evidence_based.sflb.ashx http://www.reading.org/Libraries/Position_Statements_and_R esolutions/ps1055_evidence_based.sflb.ashx Copyright Betsy Flener Ed.D. 2012

39 References Koenig, A.J., & Farrenkopf, C. (1997). Essential experiences to undergrid the early development of literacy. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 91, 14-24. Koenig, A. & Holbrook, C. (2000). Foundations of Education, 2nd Edition. New York, NY: American Foundation for the Blind Parker, A. & Pogrund, R. (2009). A review of the research on the literacy of students with visual impairments and additional disabilities. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 103, 635-648. Copyright Betsy Flener Ed.D. 2012

40 References Wetzel, R. & Knowlton, M. (2000). A comparison of print and braille reading rates on three reading tasks. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 94 (3), 146-154. Wormsley, D. P. & D’Andrea, M. F. (1997). Instructional strategies for braille literacy. New York, NY: American Foundation for the Blind. Copyright Betsy Flener Ed.D. 2012


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