Presentation on theme: "MODERN THEATRE DESIGN A THEATRE HISTORY PRESENTATION BY JOEY MCDONOUGH AND MATT CAMPBELL."— Presentation transcript:
MODERN THEATRE DESIGN A THEATRE HISTORY PRESENTATION BY JOEY MCDONOUGH AND MATT CAMPBELL
INTRO Modern Theatre Design refers to everything involved with the theatre, including lighting, sound, stages, architecture, etc, post World War I ( 1914-1918) to present day. Since World War 1 ended in 1918, Theatre became more theatrical and started to captivate more people worldwide. The desire to keep a higher standard of theatre required many technological and architectural improvements to theatre auditoriums. Enhancements with new technology have developed sound, and lighting design. Along with all architectural elements included.
20 TH CENTURY This era of theatre begins at the end of the 19 th century, around 1897 and through to the 21 st century. This era includes a lot of progression technologically, improving the quality of theatres and auditoriums. Many early 19 th century technological advances in this era, such as the invention of the Bunsen Burner, the Welsbach Mantle, and the Limelight paved the way for the theatre design we have today.
ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN The 20th century had began to develop two different ways of theatre design: 1.The Proscenium Arch 2.Theatre-In-The-Round. Many used Greek, Elizabethan and Medieval ideas for new theatres In the third quarter of the 20th century (1950-1975), theatre designers focused their efforts on the creation of adaptable spaces.
AUTOMATIONS Only large industrial theatres had the money to test and experiment with new systems New systems are elevators, hydraulic lifts, flies, tracks and moving pieces, etc All systems are controlled by motors run but a special automation department for the show, their cues work the same with stage manager cues. The need for cleaner scene changes helped push the technological movement in theatre.
LIGHTING In the early days of Greek theatre, most plays were performed in daylight, then by the time of Shakespeare, although natural sunshine was still used at times, they instituted the use of candles, torches, and basic coverings to control the light and shading in a production Today’s lighting techniques are a heavy combination of computers and technology, and creativity, allowing a lighting designer’s imaginations to take flight. Some of today’s basic lighting tools include: The Fresnel (named after French Physicist Augustin-Jean Fresnel) Ellipsoidal Spotlight Intelligent Light Follow Spot PAR Can Beam Projector Ellipsoidal Reflector Floodlights (Source4) Striplights
A BASIC HISTORY OF LIGHTING 1920s: The newer and safer incandescent spotlight, using a modern 1000 watt lamp, begins to replace the carbon arc for general theatrical use. 1911: Edison General Electric introduces a "concentrated filament" lamp for use in a lens hood (spotlight). 1916: Designer Norman Bel Geddes replaces the carbon arc lamp in a lens box with a 1000w incandecent lamp. (further developing the spotlight) 1929: Kliegl Brothers introduces the Fresnel lens spotlight. 1933: Both Kliegl Brothers (Klieglight) and Century (LekoLight) introduce the ellipsoidal reflector spotlight, which went on to become what we know as the Source4. 1971: Altman Lighting introduces the 360Q axial ellipsoidal, which was the basis for the “Intelligent Light.”
THE HISTORY OF INTELLIGENT LIGHTING The Intelligent Light is a light created late into the 20 th century that has changed the game, and has become a common piece of the modern lighting designer’s arsenal. The “Intelligent Light” that we first think of was started in 1978 by Vari-Lite (part of the company Showco) as a discharge fixture with a dichroic color changer. Eventually, the engineers decided to add 2 more motors and have the fixture pan and tilt. The prototype was shown to the members of the band Genesis, in a barn in England sometime around 1979. The Vari-Lite debuted in Madrid, Spain at a Genisis concert in 1981. After a year or so, Vari-Lite separated from Showco, and began development of a new series of fixtures. In 1991 Vari-Lite introduced the VL-5 Wash Luminaire and the Series 300 system. The VL-6 came in 1995, and the VL-7 in 1998. There are now 13 models of the Vari-Lite
SOUND- A BRIEF HISTORY By the 1950’s tape recorders were everywhere. With no sound designer or audio crew, effects were found by the stage manager and run by stage electricians. Directors with film backgrounds tried to emulate the sound of the cinema, but tapes were often of poor quality and unreliable so many cues were cut by the time a show reached Broadway Dan Dugan was the first person to be called a “Sound Designer” after working in San Francisco during the 1968-69 season; the Broadway production of Hair (1968)
21 ST CENTURY- PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER 1990s: Carbon arc lamps continue to be used as a follow spot until the end of the 20th century. 1992: ETC introduces the Source4® ellipsoidal reflector spotlight, one of the most used theatre lights to-date 2000s: The high intensity discharge lamp (HID) replace the carbon arc burner in most modern follow spots. Technology has rapidly improved, and continues to do so, and we are given more tools to produce a show that the possibilities are never ending, and lighting and sound designers can make their imaginations come to life in hundreds of different ways
WORKS CITED "Stage Lighting Then And Now." Performingarts.about.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Nov. 2013. Bel Geddes, Norman, Gosta M. Bergman, Theodore Fuchs, Louis Hartman, Bobbi Owens, and Ralph Pendleton. "A Brief Outline of the History of Stage Lighting." 3.northern.edu. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Nov. 2013. "Davy, Sir Humphrey, Baronet." Encyclopedia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopedia Britannica Online. 26 November 2013. Norton, J. There Wasn't Always Electrical Lighting in Theatre Plays? How Lighting Has Evolved In Theatre. April 2007. Associated Content. 26 November 2013. http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/215128/there_wasnt_alway s_electrical_lighting.htmlQuestia. Scene Design and Stage Lighting. 26 November 2013.
CONT’D http://www.questia.com/library/music-and-performing-arts/scene- design-and-stage-lighting.jspTrumbull, Eric. A History of Stage Lighting. 26 November 2013. http://novaonline.nv.cc.va.us/eli/spd130et/histlighting.htmUniversit y of San Diego. Hollywood Lighting. 26 November 2013. http://history.sandiego.edu/gen/filmnotes/hollywood- lights.htmlWild, Larry. A Brief Outline of the History of Stage Lighting. 26 November 2013. http://www.northern.edu/wild/LiteDes/ldhist.htmWilliams, B. PART 1 - An Introduction to Stage Lighting. 26 November 2013. http://www.mts.net/~william5/sld/sld-100.htmWilson, Edwin & Goldfarb, Alan. Theater: The Lively Art, 5th Edition. New York: McGraw-HillHumanities. 26 November 2013. "The Evolution of Lighting in Theatre." Scribd.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Nov. 2013.