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SSUSI and SSUSI-Lite Special Sensor Ultraviolet Spectrographic Imager on DMSP and Beyond Dr. Larry J. Paxton SSUSI Principal Investigator and Head of Geospace.

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Presentation on theme: "SSUSI and SSUSI-Lite Special Sensor Ultraviolet Spectrographic Imager on DMSP and Beyond Dr. Larry J. Paxton SSUSI Principal Investigator and Head of Geospace."— Presentation transcript:

1 SSUSI and SSUSI-Lite Special Sensor Ultraviolet Spectrographic Imager on DMSP and Beyond Dr. Larry J. Paxton SSUSI Principal Investigator and Head of Geospace and Earth Science Group Bob Schaefer, John Hicks, Yongliang Zhang, Ethan Miller, Bernie Ogorzalek, Brian Wolven, Guiseppe Romeo and the SSUSI Team SEASONS Conference

2 2 What is Space Weather?

3 3 Solar radiation Chain Solar Wind/Magnetospheric Chain Solar Energetic Particle Chain Lower Atmospheric Chain

4 4 What is Space Weather?

5 5 Space weather is the departure of the space environment from the average or climatological mean. There may be seasonal or longer term variations in the average conditions (e.g. solar cycle or seasonal effects). These variations have impacts on human systems. Establishing global climatology and the variations about those mean conditions enables us to design a cost-effective, robust system. We must combine “good enough” scientific understanding with appropriate technology to produce a useful solution.

6 6  Nearly all C4ISR activities involving RF and space assets (or targets) are susceptible to ionospheric space weather effects to varying degrees. Many effects consitute small risk factors, analogous to wind impacts on aircraft fuel burn, that may impact mission success. However, even apparently minor irregularities of the ionosphere may have severe impact on casualties, order of battle, and OUTCOMES: e.g., Takur-Ghar.  Ionospheric effects Refraction (bending) introduces position error in Doppler or single- site location, over-the-horizon radar techniques. Delays introduce ranging errors. Irregularities blind or dazzle radars with clutter, scramble nav/com signals (“scintillations”). Ionosphere Impacts on C4ISR Regions of scintillation, radar clutter

7 7 Space Capability Joint Effect Environmental CauseEnvironmental Effects Potential Warfighter Impacts Precision Engagement Ionospheric scintillation, ionospheric refraction Degraded GPS (or alternative navigation) system performance GPS guided weapons miss target, increased collateral damage/civilian casualties IntelligenceAurora, upper atmospheric density change, ionospheric refraction and scintillation Decreased intelligence system performance Inaccurate enemy position data Spacecraft anomaly assessment Solar/Magnetospheric particle radiation, Upper atmospheric density change, ionospheric refraction and scintillation Satellite system anomalies, increased operational downtime of space system Decreased operational space system utility (GPS, Space-Base Infra-Red System (SBIRS), Space Radar (SR), etc.) Attack AssessmentSolar/Magnetosphere particle radiation, auroral, upper atmospheric and ionospheric changes Enemy and friendly weapon system performance degradation Inability to meet attack assessment timelines, inability to distinguish hostile attack from natural effects SSUSI Environmental Data Records shown in RED SSUSI can Help Operators Distinguish Environmental from Deliberate Effects

8 8 Space Capability Joint Effect Environmental CauseEnvironmental Effects Potential Warfighter Impacts Comms on the Move Ionospheric scintillation, ionospheric refraction Degraded/broken communication link, anomalous radio wave propagation Loss of command and control, lives/missions at risk Space situational awareness Upper atmospheric density change, ionospheric refraction and scintillation Inaccurate space object identification and tracking Space object collision (e.g. shuttle), inaccurate enemy space force position Missile Warhead Detection/ Tracking/ Intercept Aurora, upper atmospheric density change, ionospheric refraction and scintillation, clouds, atmospheric attenuation Degraded warhead detection and tracking Decreased probability of missile intercept, lives at risk SSUSI Environmental Data Records shown in RED

9 9 SSUSI Heritage and Relationship to Other Programs

10 10 SSUSI Heritage and Relationship to Other Programs

11 11 FUV Spectral Region Exhibits the Signatures of Space Weather HI (121.6 nm)OI (130.4 nm)OI (135.6 nm)N 2 (LBHs)N 2 (LBHl) Dayside Limb H profiles and escape rate 1 Amount of O 2 absorption 1 O altitude profileAmount of O 2 as seen in absorption N 2, Temperature Dayside Disk Column HAmount of O 2 absorption 1 Used with LBHs to form O/N 2 N 2, Solar EUVSolar EUV Nightside Limb H profile and escape rate Ion/ENA precipitation EDP HmF2 NmF2 T plasma Ion/ENA precipitation characteristic energy Nightside Disk Geocorna and Ion/ENA precipitation Ion/ENA precipitation  n e 2 ds (line of sight) and  n e dz (vertical TEC) Ion/ENA precipitation Auroral Zone Region of proton precipitation Auroral Boundary and amount of column O 2 present 1 Region of electron and (possibly) proton precipitation Used with LBHl to form Eo and the ionization rate and conductance information Hemispheric power Radar clutter Charging Measure of the effective precipitating flux, used with LBHl to form Eo and the ionization rate and conductance information

12 12 FUV Spectral Region Exhibits the Signatures of Space Weather HI (121.6 nm)OI (130.4 nm)OI (135.6 nm)N 2 (LBHs)N 2 (LBHl) Dayside Limb H profiles and escape rate 1 Amount of O 2 absorption 1 O altitude profileAmount of O 2 as seen in absorption N 2, Temperature Dayside Disk Column HAmount of O 2 absorption 1 Used with LBHs to form O/N 2 N 2, Solar EUVSolar EUV Nightside Limb H profile and escape rate Ion/ENA precipitation EDP HmF2 NmF2 T plasma Ion/ENA precipitation characteristic energy Nightside Disk Geocorna and Ion/ENA precipitation Ion/ENA precipitation  n e 2 ds (line of sight) and  n e dz (vertical TEC) Ion/ENA precipitation Auroral Zone Region of proton precipitation Auroral Boundary and amount of column O 2 present 1 Region of electron and (possibly) proton precipitation Used with LBHl to form Eo and the ionization rate and conductance information Hemispheric power Radar clutter Charging Measure of the effective precipitating flux, used with LBHl to form Eo and the ionization rate and conductance information

13 13 FUV Spectral Region Exhibits the Signatures of Space Weather HI (121.6 nm)OI (130.4 nm)OI (135.6 nm)N 2 (LBHs)N 2 (LBHl) Dayside Limb H profiles and escape rate 1 Amount of O 2 absorption 1 O altitude profileAmount of O 2 as seen in absorption N 2, Temperature Dayside Disk Column HAmount of O 2 absorption 1 Used with LBHs to form O/N 2 N 2, Solar EUVSolar EUV Nightside Limb H profile and escape rate Ion/ENA precipitation EDP HmF2 NmF2 T plasma Ion/ENA precipitation characteristic energy Nightside Disk Geocorna and Ion/ENA precipitation Ion/ENA precipitation  n e 2 ds (line of sight) and  n e dz (vertical TEC) Ion/ENA precipitation Auroral Zone Region of proton precipitation Auroral Boundary and amount of column O 2 present 1 Region of electron and (possibly) proton precipitation Used with LBHl to form Eo and the ionization rate and conductance information Hemispheric power Radar clutter Charging Measure of the effective precipitating flux, used with LBHl to form Eo and the ionization rate and conductance information

14 14 APL Combines Heritage, Science, Engineering and Dual-Use Technology  In 1990, SSUSI started out as an experiment on DMSP Block 5D3 (F16-F20). After development of the space weather mission, SSUSI is on the path to operational use.  SSUSI/SSUSI-Lite team understands scientific principles and operational effects.  Over time, the sensor role changed from an instrument that took auroral images to a scientific instrument capable of providing Auroral images Auroral energy inputs Auroral ionospheric products Ionospheric images Ionospheric bubble maps Neutral atmosphere composition High energy particle precip. maps Magnetic field maps for s/c charging Inputs to operational models  We continue to develop new products  Must go beyond “science” to products that directly support decisions and planning.

15 15 SSUSI has a Unique Ability: 3D Imaging of the Ionosphere  SSUSI scan pattern enables us to recover a 3D image of the ionosphere from the horizon-to-horizon + limb scan information. About 100,000 line of sight TEC measurement per da per SSUSI

16 16 SSUSI has a Unique Ability: 3D Imaging of the Ionosphere  SSUSI scan pattern enables us to recover a 3D image of the ionosphere from the horizon-to-horizon + limb scan information.

17 17 SSUSI has a Unique Ability: 3D Imaging of the Ionosphere  SSUSI scan pattern enables us to recover a 3D image of the ionosphere from the horizon-to-horizon + limb scan information.

18 18 F19 Allows Us to Trace the Evolution of Ionospheric Bubbles  “Space bubble” forming earlier in the evening (observed by F19 evolves and drifts and is seen later by F18) F19 SSUSI 6:30 pm F18 SSUSI 8:00 pm Bubble grows and drifts Predictive capability Bubble grows and drifts Predictive capability

19 19 SSUSI-Lite: Smaller, More-Capable SSUSI  SSUSI-Lite demonstrated that we could be build a new, better version of SSUSI. Focused on the electronics TRL 6 demonstration of electronics and scan mechanism Greater flexibility and on-board processing ½ the mass and ½ the power – greater capability Uses heritage algorithms to produce products for warfighter – high reuse of code  A new version could be even lighter and smaller SSUSI conceptual design is solid and still meets requirements Technologies have changed.

20 20 SSUSI Images the Invisible  The full potential of operational SSUSI is not yet available to users.  SSUSI and SSUSI-Lite provide a fine-scale view of the ionosphere  APL has developed models that can exploit the native SSUSI/SSUSI-Lite resolution.  Flexible scan pattern with SSUSI-Lite can be optimized on-the-fly for theater-level products w/realtime downlink and processing at the local site

21 21 GPS-RO and SSUSI/SSUSI-Lite: A Powerful Combination GPS total electron content (TEC) and radio occultation (RO) are other sensors widely used to drive operational models. Strengths are low unit cost, synergy with other activities (geodesy, tectonics, meteorology) Weaknesses are coverage (and total cost to achieve coverage), inability to locate scintillation-causing regions unambiguously; provides little information about aurora. SSUSI-Lite plus GPS occultation is a powerful combination.

22 22 Ice-Free Arctic Will Become a Theater of Interest From DoD Arctic Strategy –November 2013: “This strategy identifies the Department’s desired end- state for the Arctic: a secure and stable region where U.S. national interests are safeguarded, the U.S. homeland is protected, and nations work cooperatively to address challenges. It also articulates two main supporting objectives: Ensure security, support safety, and promote defense cooperation, and prepare to respond to a wide range of challenges and contingencies—”

23 23 SSUSI Maps the Polar Region  SSUSIs combine to map the polar region  F19 adds information about polar aurora extent and evolution  11/16/2014 – 0100 UT F18 F19

24 24 SSUSI is the Only Sensor Providing Global Scale Auroral Imagery Radar, comm, and navigation are affected by aurora overhead or along the propagation path Region of potential radar clutter.

25 25 SSUSI: Past, Present and Future  The SSUSI program embodies many of the best qualities of APL Long term commitment to a program of national importance Highest quality possible commensurate with a cost-effective approach Commitment to deliver products to the user community Commitment to connecting research and applications communities  The next SSUSI is slated for launch on DMSP F20 Currently slated for late 2016 F20 satellite is ready to go but was the first built  SSUSI-Lite is the next step in the evolution of the APL sensor line Half the mass, power and volume with more capability Supports next-gen algorithms and beyond –Builds on 75,000 lines of operational code already running operationally Flexible design can be accommodated on a variety of platforms including small satellites and hosted payloads Could provide information in real-time for tailored local products.

26 26

27 27  Ionospheric profiles(Day and Night)  Scintillation maps  Auroral characterization  LEO Energetic Particles  Neutral Density Profiles  Temperatures Needs Identified in JROCM Cat A measurements Cat B measurements

28 28 What is Space Weather?


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