Presentation on theme: "Operations Management Material Requirements Planning (MRP) Chapter 14."— Presentation transcript:
Operations Management Material Requirements Planning (MRP) Chapter 14
Review of the Production Planning Process
SAP R/3 Approach to Production Planning
Production Process for the T-W101 Ore Wagon: 1) Two wheels are attached to an axle to make an axle assembly. 2) Two axle assemblies are attached to a wagon bed to make the ore wagon.
Bill of Material T-W101(AB&C) Ore Wagon
Three General Approaches to Production Make-to-stock: Items produced in anticipation of orders, often from a sales forecast (DiGiorno frozen pizza, Miller Lite beer) Make-to-order: Items produced to meet specific customer orders (Boeing 737s for Southwest Airlines) Assemble to order: Final product assembled from make-to-stock items (Dell desk top computer) IDES Manufacturing uses a “Make-to-stock” approach. Production of ore wagons will be driven by a sales forecast.
Sales and Operations Planning The “Rough-Cut” Plan screen for the SAP R/3 system. Sales and Operations PlanningJanFeb MarAprMay 1) Sales Forecast240280320400360 2) Production Plan240280320400360 3) Stock Level00000 4) Working Days2220222123 5) Capacity440400440420460 6) Utilization55%70%73%91%78% 7) T-W101 (units) 50% 120140160200180 8) T-W102 (units) 30% 728496120108 9) T-W103 (units) 20% 4856648072
SAP R/3 Approach to Production Planning MPS/MRP
Independent versus Dependent Demand Independent demandIndependent demand - demand for item is independent of demand for any other item The TW101A is an example of an independent demand item. It is scheduled for production as a result of a sales forecast. Dependent demandDependent demand - demand for item is dependent upon the demand for some other item The TWB101A is an example of a dependent demand item. It is scheduled to be purchased because of the demand for its parent, the TW101A ore wagon.
MRP Systems - Input and Output Master Production Schedule Bill of Materials Material Requirements Planning System Inventory Status Planned Order & Other Reports Item Master Purchasing Data
Structure of the MRP System MRP by period report MRP by date report Planned orders report Purchase requirements Exception reports MRP Programs Master Production Schedule BOM Lead Times (Item Master File) (Bill-of-Material) Inventory Data Purchasing data
Lead Times and Lot Sizing The BOM is used to determine how many of each component is required to produce a “parent”. For example, one wagon bed and two axle assemblies are required to produce on ore wagon (parent). Two wheels and one axle are required to produce one axle assembly (parent). To determine the timing and quantity for the purchase orders for the components requires information about lead-times and lot- sizing. This is found in the Material Master File (Item Master): Material Master File for T-W101A (Ore Wagon) ComponentDescriptionVendor Lot SizeLead Time T-W101AOre WagonInternal Fabrication LFL5 Days T-WB101AWagon BedMinnesota Mfg 20010 Days T-AA101Axle AssemblyInternal Fabrication 1005 Days T-AX101Axle Sooner Milling 1005 Days T-WH101WheelMinnesota Mfg 4005 Days
Master Production Schedule The production plan starts with the Sales Forecast for the month of April. This is broken down into a Detailed Production Schedule for each week. Earlier, we determined that the total demand in April for model T101A is 200. IDES Marketing Department wants these to be available for shipment at the end of each week as shown below. ModelWeek 14 Week 15 Week 16 Week 17 T-W101A 50 25 75 50 Once this has been agreed to, it becomes the Master Production Schedule (MPS).
Information from the Material Master File T-W101A IDES Mfg has determined that the cost effective way to fabricate the ore wagon is to make exactly the number that are required. If 50 are needed, then make 50; If 38 are needed, then make 38. This is called “lot-for-lot” sizing (“Lot Size” = LFL). It takes 5 days to make ore wagons (“Lead-Time” = 5 days). T-WB101A IDES Mfg has determined that the cost effective way to purchase the wagon bed is to order in quantities of 200 (“Lot Size = 200). It takes 10 days to receive an order after it has been placed (“Lead Time = 10 days).
The “MRP Record” for T-W101A Week 14: Independent Requirements50 Scheduled Receipts0 Projected on Hand (BI)0 Net Requirements50 Planned Order Receipts50 (LFL) Planned Order Release? To fabricate wagons in Week 14, a Planned Order Release must be made at the beginning of Week 14 (Lead Time = 5 days) Week 15:Independent Requirements25 Scheduled Receipts0 Projected on Hand (BI) 0 Net Requirements25 Planned Order Receipts25 (LFL) Planned Order Release?
The “MRP Record” for T-WB101A (Wagon Bed) Week 14: Dependent Requirements50 Scheduled Receipts0 Projected on Hand (BI)0 Net Requirements50 Planned Order Receipts200 (Lot Size) Planned Order Release? To receive 200 wagon beds at the beginning of Week 14, a “Planned Order Release” must be made at the beginning of Week 12 (Lead Time = 10 days) Week 15:Dependent Requirements25 Scheduled Receipts0 Projected on Hand (BI) 150 Net Requirements0 Planned Order Receipts0 Planned Order Release? There are zero (0) net requirements in Week 15. No wagon beds must be received in Week 15. No Planned Order Release is necessary.
Homework Assignment Based on the Master Production Schedule for April 2003, complete the Material Requirements Planning for all materials. Have this assignment ready to turn in at the beginning of class on Thursday March 13 th.