5Designer Benefits Fire resistance High strength to weight ratio Energy efficiencySustainable design
6Fire ResistanceLightweight concrete masonry has greater fire resistance than normal weight (heavy) c/m of the same equivalent thickness
7Equivalent Thickness Calculation Method Extensive testing has established the relationship between fire resistance and equivalent solid thickness for concrete masonry walls. The relationship determines fire endurance based on types of aggregatesused and the equivalent thickness of the unit.Equivalent thickness is defined as the solid thickness that would be obtained if the same amount of concrete were cast as a solid block. ET is obtained through ASTM C 140 testing.The ET has its basis in the conduction of E119 fire tests on concrete masonry wall assemblies and from this test the fire resistance rating of a particular wall assembly is determined. It has been shown that for concrete masonry wall assemblies, the fire resistance rating is dependent on the aggregate composition of the concrete masonry unit (CMU) and the CMU’s equivalent thickness. Through a testing program using different aggregate-type CMUs, a database exists of observed fire resistance ratings as a function of aggregate types. From this database, conservative equivalent thicknesses were chosen and are used as minimum requirements. These minimum requirements for equivalent thickness appear in the following building codes and documents:
8Equivalent ThicknessThis is the table of equivalent thickness requirements. It shows the required thickness to get the hourly fire rating. If is dependent on aggregate type. For example, a limestone unit that has an equivalent thickness of 4 inches, is a 2-hour rated block. It has 2 footnotes:A - says that you can interpolate between the columns - that is if a test reports an ET of 4.5 inches for a limestone block, its fire rating can be calculated to be 2.5 hours.B - says that you can interpolate between the rows - that is if you have a block with different aggregates, you can still determine the fire rating by knowing the percent aggregate in the CMU. This is also call blended aggregate fire rating determination. An example is shown a following slide.
9R 9.5 SmartWall = R 19 Metal Stud Wall w/ Batt Insulation Thermal EfficiencySmartWall ProvidesHigh R Values With Low Thermal Bridging Through WebsGood Thermal MassR 9.5 SmartWall = R 19 Metal Stud Wall w/ Batt InsulationAnother feature of the SmartWall System is Thermal Efficiency. Through the inherent high R values, Thermal mass and low thermal bridging through webs a significant reduction in heating and cooling costs can be realized.
10R- Values for Unreinforced Concrete Masonry Walls The R values made possible by the SmartWall unit eliminate in some cases the need for core inserts. When used in conjunction with Foamed cores, the units gain a very respectable R value of 10.5 in the 12” unit.These values are for un-reinforced units – See later slide for values for “Typical” reinforced walls.R Values per NCMA TEK 6.2A & NCMA CMS SmartWall 90 lb/cu ft. Heavy Weight 130 lb/cu ft.
11Sustainable Development Lightweight Concrete Masonry and Green BuildingsLEED Certification with Lightweight CMULEED Credits can be earned in 3 categoriesMaterials and ResourcesEnergy and AtmosphereInnovation and Design
13Higher Quality Better fire resistance Greater energy-efficiency More design flexibilityFewer shear wallsMore and larger openingsGreater comfort and safety for occupantsIncreased worker productivity
14Initial Wall Costs Lightweight The weight of the CMU affects many of the initial costs associated with the installed wall cost.Even though the per cmu cost of the SmartWall unit will increase… the total wall cost is lowered due to the reduction in labor costs, delivery costs and overhead costs.LightweightMedium Weight
15Significant Reduction in Heating & Cooling Costs Thermal EfficiencyLightweight CMU ProvidesHigh R Values With Low Thermal Bridging Through WebsGood Thermal MassSignificant Reduction in Heating & Cooling CostsBecause of their superior R factor, SmartWall Systems walls have Thermal Efficiency.Through the inherent high R values, Thermal mass and low thermal bridging through webs a significant reduction in heating and cooling costs can be realized over the life of the building.
16Total Life Cycle Wall Costs Materials manufacturers and contractors are by definition “First Cost” oriented. But building owners and designers have to live with the building, and cannot just look at first cost.Total LCC cost is the real cost of ownership and SWS lowers Total LCC.Hope to add more LCC info, masonry vs other (steel panel, glass, etc) wall systems - - Reference CMR LCC study ~1995.“Typ.” LightweightLightweight
17Mason Contractor Benefits Lighter weightIncreased efficiencyMore production with less effortImproved competitiveness for masonryMore jobs
18Why is this man smiling?These 12 x8x16 SmartWall CMUs weighed 36 # compare that to a heavy weight 2 man block 48#
22Lower Weight Benefit – less effort Example – 200 units/day MW (32 lb) lb.LW (27 lb) lb. (1000 lb. less / day) (16% reduction)
23Lower Weight Benefit – increased efficiency Example – 200 units/day + 15% increase, or 230 units/dayMW lb. 200 units/day)LW lb. (190 lb. less / day)(3% reduction)More production with less effort!
24Labor Savings Productivity Means Faster Completion >> Quicker OccupancyLower Direct Labor CostsLower Contractor Overhead CostsBetter Ergonomics w/ Lighter UnitsLess Fatigue & Fewer InjuriesLower Workman’s CompensationLighter units not only save in direct productivity (Labor rate divided by units laid per hour) but also in Overhead costs.If a SmartWall job is done on Thursday instead of Friday, All of Friday’s overhead costs – insurance, utilities, job supervision, etc – get charged to some OTHER job.ERGONOMICS – congress has killed the ergonomics law, but eventually it will be enacted and it will affect construction. In the meantime, the ergonomic benefits of lighter units are available today. Optimize Ergonomics with SmartWall!
25Increased Productivity Does NOT mean working FASTERDOES mean less fatigue permits the mason to maintain his/her NORMAL pace longerResult: More production with less effortBenefits are even more significant with 10-inch and 12-inch units
26Improved Competitiveness Installed wall cost is driven by labor cost3:1 Labor:block costAs block weight is reduced, installed cost is reducedSome of the cost saving goes to lower bid pricesLower bids make masonry more competitive vs. other wall systems
27More Jobs Lower bid prices mean more projects for masonry More projects mean more jobs!
28Opportunities Mason Contractors Examples Will recognize productivity benefitsWill recognize safety benefitsExamplesMinneapolis, MNAtlanta, GALansing, MIShould reflect reality in bids and Wall Cost Guides
29Opportunities Architects Examples Will specify lightweight to get the benefitsWill allow lightweight substitutionWill look for promised cost savingsExamplesMinneapolis, MNAtlanta, GALansing, MI
30Rotary Kiln Expanded Shale Clay and Slate LightweightStructural GradeCeramic / RefractoryInertNon-StainingThe structural grade lightweight aggregate used is a rotary kiln expanded shale clay or slate with the general characteristics of being between pcf or nearly half that of normal weight aggregates.It is produced by calcining or burning the raw shale clay or slate at a temperature of approximately 2000 deg. F in a large rotary kilnThis process causes a bloating action in the raw materials where thousands of non connected air voids are createdThe resulting product is structurally strong, stable, durable and inert yet lightweight and insulative
31Lightweight Concrete Masonry Lighter, Stronger Concrete Masonry. Outperforms Other Wall Systems:Installation EfficiencyStructural PerformanceFire Resistance & DurabilityLife Cycle Energy SavingsSmartWall is a national program developed by the ESCSISmartWall positions high performance concrete masonry units as a solution for the design community. SmartWall units are lighter and stronger than regular lightweight units in ASTM C90.It is a program that offers the specifier a wall system that has functionality and consistency across regions and from a variety of producers, and is a system which is supported by an industry certification programSmartWall promotes the upgraded characteristics of masonry that are possible when a high performance spec is utilized such as Lower Installation Cost, Improved Strength to Weight Ratio “Structural Efficiency,” Fire Resistance & Durability, and Energy Savings.Cost of the wall is important. Initial wall costs are made up of construction costs such as labor, product, and overhead. Longer term life cycle costs include energy efficiency, and maintenance.SmartWall masonry wall system takes into consideration these items and provides a cost effective solution to designers that are looking for optimum performance, safety and flexibility from the wall systems that they design
32Lightweight Concrete Masonry Built With… High quality structural grade expanded shale clay or slate aggregateAggregate is manufactured to optimum gradation for compaction, strength, shrinkage, uniformity of textureThe primary component of the SmartWall system is the High Performance Concrete Masonry Unit manufactured using high quality expanded shale clay or slate aggregates that have been manufactured to optimal gradations for compaction, strength, shrinkage, and uniformity of texture.
34ESCS Aggregate: Thermally Stable, Insulating, Refractory Aggregate type: ESCS has already been “fired” during production. While it is insulating because of its low density, it is also a structural aggregate even at elevated temperatures and is thermally stable. ESCS used in refractory linings for kilns and ovens in industrial applications worldwide.Thus it should come as no surprise that SWS walls perform so well both in the testing laboratory and in real world fires.
35SOLUTIONS Lightweight Concrete Masonry walls provide solutions: Jobs Completed Sooner at Lower Cost Because of Increased ProductivityStructural / Seismic EconomyImproved Fire Safety & DurabilityLife Cycle Energy ConservationThe use of SmartWall Systems provides many benefits for the owner, the architect and the contractor…