Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Pathways from evidence to guidelines/policy to implementation; examples from recent trials in Africa Some Thoughts….. Di Gibb MRC Clinical Trials Unit.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Pathways from evidence to guidelines/policy to implementation; examples from recent trials in Africa Some Thoughts….. Di Gibb MRC Clinical Trials Unit."— Presentation transcript:

1 Pathways from evidence to guidelines/policy to implementation; examples from recent trials in Africa Some Thoughts….. Di Gibb MRC Clinical Trials Unit Professor Di Gibb, 13 Dec 2011

2 Outline  Description of 3 trials:  CHER (Children with HIV Early antiRetroviral therapy)  DART (Development of AntiRetroviral Therapy in Africa)  FEAST (Fluid Expansion As Supportive Therapy)  Compare and contrast:  Impact on Guidelines  Uptake into National Policies  Implementation  Reflections, messages to consider and lessons learned Professor Di Gibb, 13 Dec 2011

3 Large pragmatic, multicentre individual patient trials in East & South Africa; addressing strategy questions TrialPopulationCountries dates Questions CHER IDMC advised modification 2007; main trial finished 09/ Asymptomatic HIV-infected young infants South Africa ‘Can early limited antiretroviral therapy reduce HIV disease progression and death?’ ‘When to start ART in infants?’ DART Completed Sick HIV- infected adults Uganda and Zimbabwe ‘Can antiretroviral therapy be safely given without monitoring for safety and efficacy? ’ FEAST IDMC advised stop Jan Acutely sick febrile children with shock Uganda, Kenya, Tansania ‘Does early rapid fluid resuscitation reduce 48 hour mortality in sick children (mainly malaria and sepsis) admitted to hospital with shock’ Professor Di Gibb, 13 Dec 2011

4 Rationale for CHER Trial(2004) Children with HIV Early antiRetroviral therapy  Diagnosis and treatment of HIV infected infants is complex:  High mortality and fast disease progression in infancy  Laboratory markers poorly predict disease progression  Antiretroviral therapy is life-long  No trials; variation in approaches from different guidelines (US, Europe, WHO) and over time:  Consider treatment for all infants at diagnosis Use of clinical / CD4 / viral load criteria Data for these approaches based on cohort analysis Professor Di Gibb, 13 Dec 2011

5 CHER Trial Question  Will early therapy (commenced within 3 months after birth) given for a limited time (to first or second birthday) improve HIV disease prognosis in resource- poor settings?  2 Sites in South Africa; funding from NIH  MRC CTU role: design, analysis, execution Professor Di Gibb, 13 Dec 2011

6 CHER Trial Part A n= 375 HIV infection diagnosed before 12 weeks and CD4% >25% Arm 1 Deferred treatment N=125 Arm 2 Short course (to first birthday) N=125 Arm 3 Long course ( to second birthday) N=125 FOLLOW UP years ART (start or re-start) when CD4% <20% or clinical event (<25% from August 2006) Professor Di Gibb, 13 Dec 2011

7 Independent Data Monitoring Committee Review (20 June 2007; median follow-up 32 weeks)  Recommended modifying the trial  Immediate release of results of Arm 1 (deferred ART) versus Arms 2&3 (early ART) combined  infants in Arm 1 urgently assessed for ART  trial follow-up to continue Professor Di Gibb, 13 Dec 2011

8 CHER Trial Children with Early ART) At median follow-up 32wk, 76% reduction in mortality P=0.0002; 75% reduction in disease progression; Between early arms and deferred arm Death Disease progression Violari et al, IAS June 2007; NEJM 359;21 Nov 20, 2008 Professor Di Gibb, 13 Dec 2011

9 Timelines for CHER early results and influence on Guidelines  IDMC June 2007, while enrolment still ongoing  Presented as late breaker at International meeting July 2007  Paper submitted December 2007 to NEJM  US guidelines change February 2008  WHO guidelines meeting April 2008, launch June 2008 at World AIDS  PENTA guidelines change Nov 2008  Paper published in NEJM Nov 2008  South African guidelines  Essential Drug List Committee approved Nov 2008  Final National Guideline – Dec 2010, following economic work Professor Di Gibb, 13 Dec 2011

10 Cost per child [2009 US$] Scenario Early therapy Deferred therapy Routine care Mean time in care10 months9 months3 months Cost itemCost% % % ARVs$24518%$1275%$351% Diagnostics$24318%$34114%$582% Staff / overheads$51538%$72630%$2669% Total outpatient cost$1,00474%$1,19549%$35912% Total inpatient cost$34626%$1,23751%$2,52384% Total cost$1,349$2,432$2,908 95% CI1, ,4641, ,8892, ,  Cost difference mostly due to hospitalization: Early: 2 days/ child (max: 68 days) Deferred: 7 days/ child (max: 84 days) Routine: 13 days/ child (max: 121 days)  Cost difference mostly due to hospitalization: Early: 2 days/ child (max: 68 days) Deferred: 7 days/ child (max: 84 days) Routine: 13 days/ child (max: 121 days) Gesine Meyer-Rath et al XVIII International AIDS Congress Vienna July 18 – Professor Di Gibb, 13 Dec 2011

11 Influence of CHER Results  Further evidence of rapid disease progression  BUT most babies were infected despite pMTCT  ? Generalisability of results to all infected infants  Rapid guideline change; influence of NIH and US paediatricians?  Implementation required focus on:  Early HIV diagnosis (also influenced by CHER itself in SA)  ART formulations for infants  ? Effect on prevention of mother-to-child transmission  ? Effect on family orientated care (mother and baby?) Professor Di Gibb, 13 Dec 2011

12

13 ART coverage for HIV-infected children in Africa ONLY 21% WHO report Dec 2011 Professor Di Gibb, 13 Dec 2011

14 Policy-related questions and implementation  How should decision makers make best use of infant diagnosis?  Entry points into treatment and care for majority infected infants (i.e. other than pMTCT)  How best to close the gap between diagnosis and getting on ART?  Balancing costs and gain between pMTCT and treatment for infants Professor Di Gibb, 13 Dec 2011

15 15 The Development of AntiRetroviral Therapy in Africa (DART) trial Routine vs clinically driven laboratory monitoring of HIV antiretroviral therapy in Africa: a randomised non-inferiority trial Professor Di Gibb, 13 Dec 2011

16 Anti-HIV treatment in low-income countries  Strategies to treat millions  Even today, 6.6M on antiretroviral treatment (ART) end 2010; 7.6M cannot get it  Coverage in adults 47%  Goal of treatment to reduce morbidity & mortality  Population-based approach:  Adopted by World Health Organisation (2003-)  Standardised first and second-line regimens Professor Di Gibb, 13 Dec 2011

17 17 Rationale for DART Development of Antiretroviral Therapy in Africa  In resource-rich countries, standard of care for HIV-infected patients taking ART includes routine laboratory monitoring for  toxicity (haematology, biochemistry)  efficacy (CD4 cell count, viral load)  The level of monitoring required has never been established  In Africa, laboratory monitoring  is not widely available (infrastructure, personnel etc)  is costly to maintain (reagents, quality control etc)  Question: can ART be given safely with clinically driven, rather than routine, laboratory monitoring? Professor Di Gibb, 13 Dec 2011

18 18 DART Trial Design 3316 ART-naive adults with stage WHO 2, 3 or 4 HIV disease, CD4<200 cells/mm 3 initiating ART Laboratory and Clinical Monitoring (LCM) 12 weekly biochemistry, FBC & CD4 Other investigations & concomitant medications if clinically indicated Switch to second-line for new/recurrent WHO 4 (or multiple WHO 3) CD4<100 cells/mm 3 Clinically Driven Monitoring (CDM) 12 weekly biochemistry, FBC & CD4; FBC & biochemistry only returned if clinically indicated (or grade 4 toxicity) ; CD4 never returned Other investigations & concomitant medications if clinically indicated Switch to second-line for new/recurrent WHO 4 (or multiple WHO 3) randomise As per WHO guidelines, switching before 48 weeks discouraged in both arms Professor Di Gibb, 13 Dec 2011

19 Proportion event-free Years from randomisation (ART initiation) LCMCDM Grade 4 AE p=0.18 Serious Adverse Event p=0.2 ART-modifying AE p=0.85 Safety of antiretroviral drugs No effect of Monitoring Strategy on laboratory or clinical side effects (clinical (CDM) vs laboratory LCM) arms) Grade 3/4 AE p=0.52 Professor Di Gibb, 13 Dec 2011

20 20 Survival: 3% additional mortality benefit of CD4 monitoring after 2 years on therapy; only cost-effective if CD4 costs <$ Proportion alive Years from enrolment LCM:2.2/100 PY CDM:2.9/100 PY Professor Di Gibb, 13 Dec 2011

21 Proportion alive Years from enrolment EC: 57.7/100 PY LCM:2.2/100 PY CDM:2.9/100 PY Survival: 3% additional mortality benefit of CD4 monitoring after 2 years on therapy; only cost-effective if CD4 costs <$3.8 Professor Di Gibb, 13 Dec 2011

22 LANCET 2010; 375: Population level benefits would be maximised by increasing access to drugs, rather than spending money on routine laboratory monitoring for fewer treated people (particularly toxicity tests as no benefit and costly) Professor Di Gibb, 13 Dec 2011

23 Policy Brief, Film, Policy Video on u-tube, dissemination activities Professor Di Gibb, 13 Dec 2011

24 Challenges  Although economics data presented with main results, following more modelling work (+25 year extrapolation), still not published  Generalisability to non-research settings questioned  How exactly to do clinical monitoring?  Timing with respect to 2010 WHO Guidelines (available only as an abstract at the time)  Minimal impact on several US-led programs: leaders have stated in public that DART trial results have “no relevance”  Viewed as ‘going backwards’, ‘double standards’; ‘taking something away’ from programmes already doing CD4 +/- Viral load (externally funded) Professor Di Gibb, 13 Dec 2011

25 BUT………..  DART has provided reassurance that ART roll-out to lower level facilities nearer to where people live can be done with minimal/no monitoring  Of interest/relevance because of level or decreasing funding: reduction in “slots” for new patients needing to start ART (even if CD4 <250)  DART put tenofovir on the map……  ? Benchmarking the cost for Point of care CD4? Professor Di Gibb, 13 Dec 2011

26 Lab-Lite Project “Optimising Clinical Care Strategies and Laboratory Monitoring for Cost-effective Roll-Out of Antiretroviral Therapy in Africa” Funded by Department for International Development, UK Malawi, Zimbabwe, Uganda In collaboration with Ministries of Health Professor Di Gibb, 13 Dec 2011

27 Lab-Lite Project Objectives  Describe & compare national & inter-country delivery of training, clinical care & use of laboratories & monitoring in health centres  Demonstrate how a decentralised “lab-lite” monitoring package would work in lower level health centres  Assess the costs, coverage, and equity implications of decentralised "lab-lite" patient monitoring for scale up of service delivery in Africa Professor Di Gibb, 13 Dec 2011

28 Components of Lablite  Mapping baseline survey  National level data from M&E  More in-depth Survey of Health centres  ‘Lablite’ Demonstration Project  4 representative non-research sites - Uganda(2), Zimbabwe(1), Malawi(1)  health centres clustered around a referral centre (hub and spoke) Overarching:  Programme of health economic analyses  Dissemination and communication  including with policymakers and stakeholders, politicians, NGOs and communities Professor Di Gibb, 13 Dec 2011

29 Economics Components of Work Economic Modelling and Budget Impact B1. Cost-effectiveness modelling of the costs and health outcomes of the treatment alternatives B2. Budget impact analysis of the alternative strategies (from the perspective of MOH) Equity and Patient Level Effects B3. Equity – financial protection and equity of access B4. Productivity – basic estimates of income and welfare effects Health Systems Implications B5. Impacts on laboratory infrastructures B6. Human resources for health implications Professor Di Gibb, 13 Dec 2011

30 Lab Lite Teams  Multidisciplinary (nearly all in Africa)  Healthcare professionals, epidemiologists, social scientists, economists, modellers, training and communication expertise, community  Expertise and interactions  Both in research and implementation  Drawn from within and outside DART teams  Key involvement of Ministries of Health  Capacity building is key Professor Di Gibb, 13 Dec 2011

31 Christine in N. Uganda is still travelling 60 miles to get ARVs Professor Di Gibb, 13 Dec 2011

32

33 FEAST: Background  Highest rates of child mortality are in Africa  1 in 8 children dies before age 5 (20-fold the mortality in industrialized countries)  15-30% mortality among children admitted to hospitals in sub-Saharan Africa  despite being on antibiotics and quinine  >50% deaths occur within 24 hours of admission  supportive therapies often not considered/unavailable  ETAT (Emergency Triage Assessment and Treatment) recently introduced  Includes rapid fluid resuscitation for shock (routinely used in well- resourced countries (relatively weak level of evidence; no trials) Professor Di Gibb, 13 Dec 2011

34 FEAST Controversies and Challenges Controversies:  Adult physicians: “unethical to give fluids in malaria”  Paediatricians: “unethical not to give fluids in sepsis” Challenges Issues around:  Informed consent for very sick children  Blinding  Giving fluids without intensive care and without ‘the right’ infrastructure Professor Di Gibb, 13 Dec 2011

35 FEAST : large pragmatic trial Questions:  Is early rapid fluid resuscitation safe and result in a lower mortality compared to current care (control: no bolus)?  Are colloid fluids (albumin) better than crystalloids (saline)?  3-arm trial: maintenance fluids only vs albumin bolus vs normal saline bolus (20ml/kg)  3600 children with febrile illness and shock (two-thirds with malaria); exclude gastroenteritis, burns, malnutrition  Primary Endpoint: 48-hour mortality Professor Di Gibb, 13 Dec 2011

36 36 KENYA Kilifi TANZANIA Teule UGANDA (4 centres) Mulago Hospial, Kampala Mbale Soroti Lacor Hospital, Gulu UNITED KINGDOM MRC Clinical Trials Unit, London & Imperial College, London (Sponsor) Albumin and Saline donated by Baxter, Funded by MRC, UK FEAST partners Support: Professor Di Gibb, 13 Dec 2011

37 § Soroti Hospital, Uganda 8000 admissions per year Professor Di Gibb, 13 Dec 2011

38 IDMC meeting January 2011  IDMC met in January 2011 to review 5 th interim analysis report (with 2987 patients).  Their recommendation to TSC was that further randomisation to the trial should stop. Professor Di Gibb, 13 Dec 2011

39 Kaplan-Meier plot-time to death in first 48 hours 3.3% increase in mortality in bolus arms vs control Professor Di Gibb, 13 Dec 2011

40 Fast track; May months after IDMC stop Follow-up ongoing until August 2011 Professor Di Gibb, 13 Dec 2011

41 Response to the trial Professor Di Gibb, 13 Dec 2011

42 Post FEAST  ‘Disbelief’ from intensive care community in well-resourced countries  Feeling run high about fluid management!  Questioning generalisability  Pondering mechanisms; subgroups…  Further analysis  Dissemination  WHO guidance – complex message  planning to review evidence in 2012  Changes in ETAT?  What do results mean for settings outside Africa? Professor Di Gibb, 13 Dec 2011

43

44 Some Thoughts from all 3 trials……  Place of Guidelines (strong in HIV; (too strong?)  Timing and relation to the guideline process  Who is funding the programmes on the ground?  Role of actors on the ground  Researchers,  community  Decision makers on trial committees  Interest and Relevance of results to other settings? How does that help?  Eg FEAST trial results in well-resourced countries  DART toxicity results in well-resourced countries  Impact of the research process (and associated capacity building) on national guidelines, clinical practice, health systems  Measuring uptake/coverage of an intervention and thus the impact of research? (eg cotrimoxazole prophylaxis)  Role of health economics  The ethical issues associated with ‘taking something away’ are different from ‘not adding something new’…so timing……….. Professor Di Gibb, 13 Dec 2011

45 Thank you Professor Di Gibb, 13 Dec 2011


Download ppt "Pathways from evidence to guidelines/policy to implementation; examples from recent trials in Africa Some Thoughts….. Di Gibb MRC Clinical Trials Unit."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google