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4 Video Camera Operations © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Understand how white balancing a camera.

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Presentation on theme: "4 Video Camera Operations © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Understand how white balancing a camera."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 4 Video Camera Operations

3 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Understand how white balancing a camera affects the picture. Summarize how depth of field contributes to composing a good picture. Identify the composition of each type of camera shot. Illustrate a variety of camera movements. Explain how a videographer can psychologically and physically affect the audience. Objectives

4 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Important Rule If audience cannot see it on screen, it does not exist–unless you give clues that allow audience to assume that what they do not see does indeed exist. Example: talent playing a guitar. Audience does not need to see entire neck of guitar–they will assume it is there.

5 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. White Balance Camera needs to be “told” what white is, called white balancing When balanced, camera sees all other colors correctly Zoom in on white object on set Activate white balance circuit on camera Zoom back out and shoot normally

6 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Pre-focusPre-focus Zoom Lens 1.Zoom in on farthest important object 2.Focus 3.Zoom out After pre-focus, everything from 6’ in front of camera to object in step 2 will be in focus

7 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Zoom/Macro Zoomed-in image is similar to telescope image Macro image is similar to microscope imageMacro

8 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Minimum Object Distance (MOD) When camera moves toward object–the point where lens can no longer focus

9 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Depth of Field (DOF) Understanding DOF will give camera operator tremendous control on what audience looks at in total picture

10 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Great Depth of Field Great DOF is found in nearly all television and film shots because it keeps nearly everything in the shot in focus No one thing in picture stands out

11 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Shallow Depth of Field Lens is manipulated so that DOF is very narrow and only single object in entire image is in focus, leaving rest of picture out of focus Shallow DOF causes one object in picture to stand out dramatically

12 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Shallow Depth of Field (Cont.) Selective depth of field is choice made by director/camera operatorSelective depth of field In shallow DOF, camera operator often rotates lens to shift from one item being in focus to another item being in focus Focusing while camera is hot is rack focus, or pull focusrack focus

13 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Shallow Depth of Field (Cont.)

14 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Factors Affecting DOF Aperture Subject to camera distance Focal length Changing any or all of 1-3 changes size of DOF Set lighting does not affect depth of field

15 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Why are there so many lights in ceiling of television studio? Discussion

16 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Rule of Thirds Tic-tac-toe grid imagined on TV screen Important items in shot placed at intersections of grid lines Do not center important items on screen

17 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Head Room Use rule of thirds when framing head room

18 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Nose Room Use rule of thirds when framing nose room

19 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Shot Sheets Shot = pictureShot Before shot sheets can be created, every shot in scene must be assigned a consecutive number Only camera 1’s shots are on camera 1’s shot sheet Shot sheets make complex shooting much simpler

20 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Wide Shots Extreme long shot (ELS/XLS), also called wide angle shot (WA)Extreme long shot (ELS/XLS) Establishing shot–wide angle shot of gigantic spaceships in battle in asteroid belt space indicates program is science fictionEstablishing shot Long shot (LS)

21 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Extreme Long Shot

22 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Long Shot

23 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Individual Subject Shots Medium long shot (MLS), also called knee shotMedium long shot (MLS) Medium shot (MS), also called mid shotMedium shot (MS) Medium close-up (MCU), also called bust shotMedium close-up (MCU) Close-up (CU), also called narrow angle shotClose-up (CU) Extreme close-up (ECU/XCU)

24 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Medium Long Shot

25 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Medium Shot

26 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Medium Close-up

27 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Close-up

28 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Extreme Close-up

29 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Multiple Subject Shots Two shot Three shot Four shot Group shot

30 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Specific View Shots Reaction shot–shot of woman’s face as man off camera asks her to marry himReaction shot Profile shot Over-the-shoulder shot (OSS)

31 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Profile Shot

32 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. OSS

33 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Dolly dolly in (DI) dolly out (DO)

34 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Pan Pan right (PR) Pan left (PL)

35 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Truck Truck right (TR) Truck left (TL)

36 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Tilt Tilt up (TU) Tilt down (TD)

37 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Pedestal Pedestal up (PedU) Pedestal down (PedD)

38 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Arc Arc right (AR) Arc left (AL)

39 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Psychology of Presentation Low angle shot makes subject powerful, respected, and feared by audienceLow angle shot High angle shot makes audience feel that subject is weak and insignificantHigh angle shot Consistent slight low/high angle will manipulate audience’s opinion of subject Extreme low/high angle is comedic

40 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Interesting information about job descriptions, duties, and outlooks for television camera operators Career Page

41 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. In broadcast journalism newscasts, what are ethical considerations of use of low and high angle shots? News should be unbiased and not manipulative. That said, is it? What are examples of when and how this manipulation of public might occur? Discussion

42 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. What three steps are necessary to pre-focus zoom lens? Zoom in on farthest object that must be in focus; focus; zoom out Review Question

43 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. What is the purpose of an establishing shot? It tells audience where and when action is taking place. Review Question

44 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Imagine vase sitting on a table in a room. How many of the various camera angles can be used to shoot it? All of them except reaction shot. Review Question

45 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. What is the value of selective depth of field? It allows single item in shot to be dramatically presented to audience. It controls exactly where audience’s eyes are looking. Review Question

46 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. What three factors affect depth of field? Aperture size; subject to camera distance; focal length Review Question

47 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Identify several camera movements and their abbreviations. Dolly, dolly in (DI), dolly out (DO); pan, pan right (PR), pan left (PL); truck, truck right (TR), truck left (TL); tilt, tilt up (TU), tilt down (TD); pedestal, pedestal up (PedU), pedestal down (PedD); arc, arc right (AR), arc left (AL) Review Question

48 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. arc: Moving the camera in a curved truck around the main subject in the shot—the main subject never leaves the frame of the picture. arc left (AL): Rolling the camera, tripod, and dolly in a circle to the camera operator’s left (clockwise) around the subject of a shot. Glossary

49 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. arc right (AR): Rolling the camera, tripod, and dolly in a circle to the camera operator’s right (counterclockwise) around the subject of a shot. close-up (CU): A shot that captures a subject from the top of the head to just below the shoulders. Also called a narrow angle shot. Glossary

50 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. depth of field (DOF): The distance between the closest point to the camera that is in focus and the furthest point from the camera that is also in focus. dolly: Physically moving the camera, its tripod, and dolly perpendicularly toward or away from the set. dolly in (DI): Smoothly pushing the camera directly forward toward the set. Glossary

51 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. dolly out (DO): Pulling the camera backward while facing the set. establishing shot: A specific type of extreme long shot used to tell the audience where and when the program takes place. extreme close-up (ECU/XCU): A shot of an object that is so magnified that only a specific part of the object fills the screen. Glossary

52 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. extreme long shot (ELS/XLS): The biggest shot a camera can capture of the subject matter. Also called a wide angle (WA) shot. four shot: A shot that captures four items. great depth of field: When a camera’s depth of field is as large as possible. group shot: A shot that incorporates any number of items above four. Glossary

53 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. head room: The space from the top of a person’s head to the top of the television screen arc. high angle shot: Shooting talent with the camera positioned higher in the air and pointing down at an angle. Glossary

54 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. long shot (LS): A shot that captures a subject from the top of the head to the bottom of the feet and does not include many of the surrounding details. low angle shot: A shot created by placing the camera anywhere from slightly to greatly below the eye level of the talent and pointing it up toward the talent. Glossary

55 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. macro: A lens setting that allows the operator to focus on an object that is very close to the camera, almost touching the lens. medium close-up (MCU): A shot that frames a subject from the top of the head to a line just below the chest. Also called a bust shot. Glossary

56 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. medium long shot (MLS): A shot that includes the top of a subject’s head to a line just above or just below the knee. Also called a knee shot. medium shot (MS): A shot that captures a subject from the top of the head to a line just above or below the belt or waistline. Also called a mid shot. Glossary

57 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. minimum object distance (MOD): The closest an object can be to the camera and still be in focus. nose room: The space from the tip of a person’s nose to the side edge of the frame. Also called a lead room. Glossary

58 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. over-the-shoulder shot (OSS): A shot in which the back of one person’s head and shoulder are in the foreground of the shot, while a face shot of the other person in the conversation is in the background. pan: Moving only the camera to scan the set horizontally, while the dolly and tripod remain stationary. Glossary

59 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. pan left (PL): Moving the camera to the camera operator’s left to scan the set, while the dolly and tripod remain stationary. pan right (PR): Moving the camera to the camera operator’s right to scan the set, while the dolly and tripod remain stationary. Glossary

60 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. pedestal: Raising or lowering the camera on the pedestal of a tripod, while facing the set. The tripod and dolly remain stationary. pedestal down (PedD): Lowering the camera on the pedestal of a tripod, while facing the set. The tripod and dolly remain stationary. Glossary

61 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. pedestal up (PedU): Raising the camera on the pedestal of a tripod, while facing the set. The tripod and dolly remain stationary. pre-focus: A three-step process to focus a zoom lens. 1) Zoom in on the furthest object on the set that must be in focus in the shot. 2) Focus the camera on that object. 3) Zoom the lens back out. Glossary

62 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. profile shot: A shot in which the talent’s face is displayed in profile. rack focus: The process of changing focus on a camera while that camera is hot. Also called pull focus. reaction shot: A shot that captures one person’s face reacting to what another person is saying or doing. Glossary

63 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. rule of thirds: A composition rule that divides the screen into thirds horizontally and vertically, like a tic-tac- toe grid placed over the picture on a television set. Almost all of the important information included in every shot is located at one of the four intersections of the horizontal and vertical lines. Glossary

64 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. selective depth of field: A technique of choosing to have a shallow depth of field in a shot or scene. shallow depth of field: A depth of field technique that moves the audience’s attention to the one portion of the picture that is in focus. Glossary

65 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. shot: An individual picture taken by a camera during the process of shooting program footage. shot sheet: A numerical listing of each shot to be captured by each camera in a multi-camera shoot. Shot sheets are developed specifically for each camera. three shot: A shot that frames three items. Glossary

66 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. tilt: Pointing only the front of the camera (lens) vertically up or down while the dolly and tripod remain stationary. tilt down (TD): Pointing the camera lens down toward the ground, while the dolly and tripod remain stationary. tilt up (TU): Pointing the camera lens up toward the ceiling, while the dolly and tripod remain stationary. Glossary

67 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. truck: Moving the camera, its tripod, and dolly to the left or right in a motion that is parallel to the set. truck left (TL): To move the camera, its tripod, and dolly sideways and to the camera operator’s left while facing the set. Glossary

68 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. truck right (TR): To move the camera, its tripod, and dolly sideways and to the camera operator’s right while facing the set. two shot: A shot that includes two items of primary importance. white balance: A function on cameras that forces the camera to see an object as white, without regard to the type of light hitting it or the actual color of the object. Glossary


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