Presentation on theme: "Genetics Part II. Nature vs. Nurture What you are born with (your genes) only determines part of how you will develop (nurture) Gene Expression: Genes."— Presentation transcript:
Genetics Part II
Nature vs. Nurture What you are born with (your genes) only determines part of how you will develop (nurture) Gene Expression: Genes need to be “turned on” or activated to create specific proteins. Genes are influenced by other genes and they are influenced by the environment Genetic Predisposition: May have the genetics for a trait, however, the gene/genes may never be activated. “At-Risk” … you may or may not even have the genes. You control part of your nurture HOWEVER some is out of your control (examples of nurture that is out of your control: Air quality, your mother’s diet while she was pregnant)
Vincent Genetically predisposed (99% probabilty) for heart failure Yet never has heart troubles Assumes the identity of Jerome Morrow
Jerome Genetically “superior” – however still fails
In-Vitro Fertilization Egg and sperm fertilized outside the human body
Polygenic traits All the traits Mendel studied were MONOgenetic (caused by a single gene) Most traits are caused by multiple genes (POLY = “MANY”) Examples: Human height, intelligence
Sex-Linked Traits Gene located on the X Chromosome - Color blindness - Hemophilia
You a man. Y. Yes that is correct!
Non-disjunction Result of when during Meiosis (the formation of gametes) chromosome pairs do not separate correctly – Thus Mendel’s law of segregation is broken Results in individuals with too many or too few chromosomes Examples: Downs Syndrome (Trisomy 21) and Turners Syndrome
Amniocentesis Using a needle amniotic fluid is removed from the women and tested Much different from an ultrasound or sonogram that only uses sound waves to create a picture of the baby
What is a Pedigree? A pedigree is a chart of the genetic history of family over several generations. A “family tree” Scientists or a genetic counselor would find out about your family history and make this chart to analyze.
Constructing a Pedigree Male Female
Connecting Pedigree Symbols Married Couple Siblings Examples of connected symbols: