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ADVANCED LEC 04 ORNITHOLOGY University of Rio Grande Donald P. Althoff, Ph.D. Anatomy & Physiology Part I Reference Chapters 1 & 6.

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Presentation on theme: "ADVANCED LEC 04 ORNITHOLOGY University of Rio Grande Donald P. Althoff, Ph.D. Anatomy & Physiology Part I Reference Chapters 1 & 6."— Presentation transcript:

1 ADVANCED LEC 04 ORNITHOLOGY University of Rio Grande Donald P. Althoff, Ph.D. Anatomy & Physiology Part I Reference Chapters 1 & 6

2 Skeleton Systems NOTABLE CHARACTERISTICS ______ of adjacent bones (example: furcula… the wishbone) ______: Pneumaticity of many bones resulting in the presence of air cavities Gary Ritcheson EKU

3 Skeletal Make-up Bones of the ______

4 Gill Fig. 5-15, p133

5 Bones of the LIMBS -- Wings Humerus Ulna & Radius “rest”

6 Bones of the LIMBS – Wings con’t Humerus is ___________, proportion-wise, than in humans relative to the radius and ulna Humerus has pneumatic cavity which receives an air sac. The air sacs connect directly to the primary and secondary bronchi—assists with air flow through the lungs Ulna & Radius-to-humerus results in ________ as does ulna & radius to carpels

7 Bones of the LIMBS – Wings con’t ________: radiale & ulnare _________________________ (metacarpels) Phalanges—__ total a) alular digit (1) b) major digit (2) c) minor digit (1)

8 Bones of the LIMBS – Legs ____ as specialized as wings in terms of bones…but still reduced number of bones from humans: __-humans __-birds _______—knee cap is insignificant ______—sits back far into pelvic girdle, allowing only forward and backward movement …_________ movement

9 Bones of the LIMBS – Legs con’t Tibiotarus and fibula a) Tibiotarsus bigger of two; extends to heel b) fibula is poorly developed, does not extend to the heel

10 Bones of the LIMBS – Legs con’t ________—”ankle” (fused) essentially not present… with other bones (i.e., tibiotarsus and tarsometatarsus) _____________: tarsometatarsus (or metatarsus…or tarsus)

11 Bones of the LIMBS – Foot/Feet ___________—3 to 4 digits Toe I is Hallux (project posteriorly) __________ projections: a) Toe II –inner most b) Toe III –middle most c) Toe IV –outer most

12 Bones of the LIMBS – Foot/Feet…con’t Toe #1 (hallux) is equivalent to human “big” toe No bird species have 5 th toe, some __________

13 Bones of the TRUNK Vertebral column Ribs Sternum Pectoral Girdle Pelvic Girdle

14 Vertebral Column Cervical vertebrae: neck ______ Thoracic vertebrae: chest ____ Lumbar vertebrae: loin ____ Sacral vertebrae: pelvis ____ Caudal vertebrae: tail ____

15 Caudal (aka tail) Vertebrae Terminal vertebra: represents several ______ vertebrae in humans and reptiles Terminal vertebra: ________ --serves as base for rectrices _____ caudal vertebrae

16 Ribs ________ (compared to human) Typical rib: bony attachment in ___ places to the vertebrae… with cartilaginous attachment in place to sternum This design permits sternum to move in __ directions for breathing

17 Sternum Breastbone Two types: ________: ventral surface flattened (flightless birds) ________: ventral surface keeled (flying birds)

18 Carina (keel) Part of the sternum Only found on ________ sterna (i.e., flying birds) ______________ to the “typical” sternum bone found in mammals, some other vertebrates Provides large surface for attachment of 2 key muscles: a) pectoralis major & minor b) supracoracoideus

19 _______

20 Pectoral Girdle “shoulder” girdle _______ supporting wing: a) _________ b) _________ c) _________ (fused together = furcula = wishbone) A A B B B A C C

21 Pelvic Girdle Fairly similar to human pelvis Gives support to _____ 3-parts: a) ilium—largest and longest b) ischium—thin, plate-like c) pubis—slender, needle-like Bones are fused to vertebral column

22 Bones of the HEAD _____ fusion _____ bones—3 areas a) cranium b) face c) tongue

23 Bones of the HEAD--Cranium

24 Occipital—base of cranium Parietals—back & top Frontals—roof of anterior portion of cranium Squamosals Periotic capsules—contain hearing organs Bones of the HEAD--Cranium

25 Quadrate—connect lower mandible with cranium Quadratojugals & jugals—equals zygomatic arch in mammals __________—”upper” jaw Palatines--palate Bones of the HEAD--Face

26 ___________—form tip of upper mandible a) part of culmen of beak b) dentary process Nasals—rest on the ethmoid Lacrimals— paired bones in anterior portions of orbits _________ bones a) two bones fused anteriorly (dentary) b) each jaw bone consist of 5, immovable bones Bones of the HEAD—Face..con’t

27 __________________ a) glossohyal—main bulk of tongue b) basihyal, basibranchial, ceratobranchials, & epibranchials Bones of the HEAD—Tongue glossohyal basihyal basibranchial Ceratobranchial epibranchial

28 __________ number of bones __________ bones numerous Ratite vs. carinate importance Bones are _______, but structurally strong Backbone _______ to pelvic girdle Skeletal Summary

29 remained flexibile reduced flexibilility rigidity reduced flexibilility center of gravity

30 Frigatebird – has 7’ wingspan weights about 3 lbs ● only 4 oz. of that total is bone (~ 8%)

31 “Perching” Does ___ require much energy Tendons that flex the toe can _____ the foot a tight grip— on rear side of ankle _________ contraction is required to hold the toes closed _____________________ on tendons lying underneath the toe bones mesh with ridges on the inside surface of the surrounding tendon sheath


33 ________ --involuntary ________ --voluntary MUSCULAR SYSTEM

34 Total muscles in birds: ___ Major differences—among species with respect to breast muscle tissue composition and color Fast vs. slow twitch MUSCULAR SYSTEM _____________

35 Muscles – Mass distribution differences Hummingbirds & swallows mostly flight Predatory birds flight but use legs to capture prey Swimming birds “Terrestrial” birds --run instead of fly to flee flight muscles ______ of total body mass, legs ____ flight muscles ~_____ of total body mass, leg ____ limb & flight muscles about equal percentage, overall _______ of total body mass limb muscle mass __ than flight muscle mass

36 Muscles…back to Slow vs. Fast Twitch Two basic processes “fuel” muscle contract: A) ____________ metabolic pathways --achieve “quick” response --does not requires O 2 --more fast-twitch muscle fibers, relative to slow-twitch muscle fibers B) ____________ metabolic pathways --achieve “sustained” response --requires O 2 --more slow-twitch muscle fibers, relative to fast-twitch muscle fibers --slow-twitch muscle fibers contain lots of _____________

37 _____________ Twitch Muscle Fibers Category Slow-TwitchFast-Twitch ______________morefewer ______________moreless Myoglobinmoreless Color appearancered-brownwhite __________ build-uplowerhigher Fatigueslowerquicker

38 White vs. Red/Dark Meat Examples “White” meat: turkeys, pheasant, chickens, grouse Red/dark meat examples: pigeon, waterfowl (ducks, geese, swans), passerines, hawks, owls, vultures)

39 Muscles & Birds Other “flier” vs. “runner” differences Composition of leg muscles indicates regular, sustainable activity Composition of breast muscles (major muscle groups responsible for up- and downstroke of wings) indicative to long vs. short flight capabilities Fliers—(think songbirds, waterfowl, etc.) a) legs: ______ amounts of myoglobin b) breast: ______ amounts of myoglobin Runners—(think quail, pheasant, wild turkey) a) legs: ______ amounts of myoglobin b) breast: _______________ myoglobin

40 More on muscle physiology… “White” muscle tissue has high ________ content— think “quick” energy. Allows for quick flight as it is metabolized ______________ (i.e., ____________) Glycogen is transformed into ___________. Lactic acid is a ________ and its accumulation in the muscles limits stamina—disrupts “reset” of cellular processes Birds use glycogen anaerobically at ________ and when _______, but as flight steadies, they switch to burning fat

41 ↓ _________________– origin on keel of sternum (lateral side) and inserts at humerus on ventral side _____________________ relaxes during upstroke ↑ ________________ – origin on keel of sternum (lateral side), passes through foramen triosseum, inserts (tendon) on dorsal head of humerus. Foramen trosseum formed by articulation of the furcula, coracoid, and scapula. relaxes during downstroke ____________________ Major Flight Muscles

42 pectoralis

43 supracoracoideus

44 right humerus Left humerus Foramen triosseum

45 Skeletal Muscles…con’t Cranial a) somatic b) _________ arch  tongue, pharynx, syrinx, glottis controls Spinal a) axial b) appendicular

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