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Anatomy & Physiology Part I ORNITHOLOGY ADVANCED 04

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1 Anatomy & Physiology Part I ORNITHOLOGY ADVANCED 04
University of Rio Grande Donald P. Althoff, Ph.D. LEC 04 ORNITHOLOGY Anatomy & Physiology Part I Reference Chapters 1 & 6

2 Skeleton Systems NOTABLE CHARACTERISTICS
______ of adjacent bones (example: furcula… the wishbone) ______: Pneumaticity of many bones resulting in the presence of air cavities Gary Ritcheson EKU

3 Skeletal Make-up Bones of the ______

4 Gill Fig. 5-15, p133

5 Bones of the LIMBS -- Wings
Humerus Ulna & Radius “rest”

6 Bones of the LIMBS – Wings con’t
Humerus is ___________, proportion-wise, than in humans relative to the radius and ulna Humerus has pneumatic cavity which receives an air sac. The air sacs connect directly to the primary and secondary bronchi—assists with air flow through the lungs Ulna & Radius-to-humerus results in ________ as does ulna & radius to carpels

7 Bones of the LIMBS – Wings con’t
________: radiale & ulnare _________________________ (metacarpels) Phalanges—__ total a) alular digit (1) b) major digit (2) c) minor digit (1)

8 Bones of the LIMBS – Legs
____ as specialized as wings in terms of bones…but still reduced number of bones from humans: __-humans __-birds _______—knee cap is insignificant ______—sits back far into pelvic girdle, allowing only forward and backward movement …_________ movement

9 Bones of the LIMBS – Legs con’t
Tibiotarus and fibula a) Tibiotarsus bigger of two; extends to heel b) fibula is poorly developed, does not extend to the heel

10 Bones of the LIMBS – Legs con’t
________—”ankle” (fused) essentially not present… with other bones (i.e., tibiotarsus and tarsometatarsus) _____________: tarsometatarsus (or metatarsus…or tarsus)

11 Bones of the LIMBS – Foot/Feet
___________—3 to 4 digits Toe I is Hallux (project posteriorly) __________ projections: a) Toe II–inner most b) Toe III–middle most c) Toe IV–outer most

12 Bones of the LIMBS – Foot/Feet…con’t
Toe #1 (hallux) is equivalent to human “big” toe No bird species have 5th toe, some __________

13 Bones of the TRUNK Vertebral column Ribs Sternum Pectoral Girdle
Pelvic Girdle

14 Vertebral Column Cervical vertebrae: neck ______
Thoracic vertebrae: chest ____ Lumbar vertebrae: loin ____ Sacral vertebrae: pelvis ____ Caudal vertebrae: tail ____

15 Caudal (aka tail) Vertebrae
_____ caudal vertebrae Terminal vertebra: represents several ______ vertebrae in humans and reptiles Terminal vertebra: ________ --serves as base for rectrices

16 Ribs ________ (compared to human)
Typical rib: bony attachment in ___ places to the vertebrae… with cartilaginous attachment in place to sternum This design permits sternum to move in __ directions for breathing

17 Sternum Breastbone Two types: ________: ventral surface flattened (flightless birds) ________: ventral surface keeled (flying birds)

18 Carina (keel) Part of the sternum
Only found on ________ sterna (i.e., flying birds) ______________ to the “typical” sternum bone found in mammals, some other vertebrates Provides large surface for attachment of 2 key muscles: a) pectoralis major & minor b) supracoracoideus

19 _______

20 Pectoral Girdle “shoulder” girdle
_______ supporting wing: a) _________ b) _________ c) _________ (fused together = furcula = wishbone) B B A B A A C C

21 Pelvic Girdle Fairly similar to human pelvis Gives support to _____
3-parts: a) ilium—largest and longest b) ischium—thin, plate-like c) pubis—slender, needle-like Bones are fused to vertebral column

22 Bones of the HEAD _____ fusion
_____ bones—3 areas a) cranium b) face c) tongue

23 Bones of the HEAD--Cranium

24 Bones of the HEAD--Cranium
Occipital—base of cranium Parietals—back & top Frontals—roof of anterior portion of cranium Squamosals Periotic capsules—contain hearing organs

25 Bones of the HEAD--Face
Quadrate—connect lower mandible with cranium Quadratojugals & jugals—equals zygomatic arch in mammals __________—”upper” jaw Palatines--palate

26 Bones of the HEAD—Face..con’t
___________—form tip of upper mandible a) part of culmen of beak b) dentary process Nasals—rest on the ethmoid Lacrimals— paired bones in anterior portions of orbits _________ bones a) two bones fused anteriorly (dentary) b) each jaw bone consist of 5, immovable bones

27 Bones of the HEAD—Tongue
__________________ a) glossohyal—main bulk of tongue b) basihyal, basibranchial, ceratobranchials, & epibranchials epibranchial Ceratobranchial glossohyal basibranchial basihyal

28 Skeletal Summary __________ number of bones __________ bones numerous
Ratite vs. carinate importance Bones are _______, but structurally strong Backbone _______ to pelvic girdle

29 reduced flexibilility
remained flexibile reduced flexibilility rigidity reduced flexibilility center of gravity

30 Frigatebird – has 7’ wingspan weights about 3 lbs
● only 4 oz. of that total is bone (~ 8%)

31 “Perching” Does ___ require much energy
Tendons that flex the toe can _____ the foot a tight grip—on rear side of ankle _________ contraction is required to hold the toes closed _____________________ on tendons lying underneath the toe bones mesh with ridges on the inside surface of the surrounding tendon sheath

32

33 MUSCULAR SYSTEM ________ --involuntary ________ --involuntary

34 MUSCULAR SYSTEM Total muscles in birds: ___
Major differences—among species with respect to breast muscle tissue composition and color Fast vs. slow twitch _____________

35 Muscles – Mass distribution differences
Hummingbirds & swallows mostly flight Predatory birds flight but use legs to capture prey Swimming birds “Terrestrial” birds --run instead of fly to flee flight muscles ______ of total body mass, legs ____ flight muscles ~_____ of total body mass, leg ____ limb & flight muscles about equal percentage, overall _______ of total body mass limb muscle mass __ than flight muscle mass

36 Muscles…back to Slow vs. Fast Twitch
Two basic processes “fuel” muscle contract: A) ____________ metabolic pathways --achieve “quick” response does not requires O more fast-twitch muscle fibers, relative to slow-twitch muscle fibers B) ____________ metabolic pathways achieve “sustained” response requires O more slow-twitch muscle fibers, relative to fast-twitch muscle fibers --slow-twitch muscle fibers contain lots of _____________

37 _____________ Twitch Muscle Fibers
Category Slow-Twitch Fast-Twitch ______________ more fewer ______________ more less Myoglobin more less Color appearance red-brown white __________ build-up lower higher Fatigue slower quicker

38 White vs. Red/Dark Meat Examples
“White” meat: turkeys, pheasant, chickens, grouse Red/dark meat examples: pigeon, waterfowl (ducks, geese, swans), passerines, hawks, owls, vultures)

39 Muscles & Birds Other “flier” vs. “runner” differences
Composition of leg muscles indicates regular, sustainable activity Composition of breast muscles (major muscle groups responsible for up- and downstroke of wings) indicative to long vs. short flight capabilities Fliers—(think songbirds, waterfowl, etc.) a) legs: ______ amounts of myoglobin b) breast: ______ amounts of myoglobin Runners—(think quail, pheasant, wild turkey) a) legs: ______ amounts of myoglobin b) breast: _______________ myoglobin

40 More on muscle physiology…
“White” muscle tissue has high ________ content—think “quick” energy. Allows for quick flight as it is metabolized ______________ (i.e., ____________) Glycogen is transformed into ___________. Lactic acid is a ________ and its accumulation in the muscles limits stamina—disrupts “reset” of cellular processes Birds use glycogen anaerobically at ________ and when _______, but as flight steadies, they switch to burning fat

41 Major Flight Muscles ↓ _________________– origin on keel of sternum (lateral side) and inserts at humerus on ventral side _____________________ relaxes during upstroke ↑ ________________ – origin on keel of sternum (lateral side), passes through foramen triosseum, inserts (tendon) on dorsal head of humerus. Foramen trosseum formed by articulation of the furcula, coracoid, and scapula relaxes during downstroke ____________________

42 pectoralis

43 supracoracoideus

44 Left humerus Foramen triosseum right humerus supracoracoideus

45 Skeletal Muscles…con’t
Cranial a) somatic b) _________ arch  tongue, pharynx, syrinx, glottis controls Spinal a) axial b) appendicular


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