Presentation on theme: "An Introduction to Topology Linda Green"— Presentation transcript:
1An Introduction to Topology Linda Green Bay Area Circle for Teachers2012 Summer WorkshopImages from virtualmathmuseum.org
2Topics What is topology? Surfaces and gluing diagrams The universe A math auctionMost of this material is from The Shape of Space by Jeff Weeks.
3Geometry vs. Topology Study of rigid objects Rotations and reflections are okayNo stretching allowedStudy of flexible objectsRotations and reflections are okayStretching and bending are okayNo tearing or gluing allowed
4Topology vs. Geometry Informal Definitions The properties of an object that stay the same when you bend or stretch it are called the topology of the object.Two objects are considered the same topologically if you can deform one into the other without tearing, cutting, gluing, or other violent actions.The properties of an object that change when you bend or stretch it are the geometry of the object.For example, distances, angles, and curvature are parts of geometry but not topology.
5Deforming an object doesn’t change it’s topology Image fromA topologist is someone who can’t tell the differencebetween a coffee cup and a doughnut.
7Gluing diagramsWhat topological surface do you get when you glue (or tape) the edges of the triangle together as shown?
8Gluing diagramsWhat do you get when you glue the edges of the square together like this?Don’t glue the interior parts of the square together, just the edges!
9Gluing diagrams What surface is this? And this? S2 (a sphere) T2 (a torus)
10Life inside the surface of a torus What happens as this 2-dimensional creature travels through its tiny universe?What does it see when it looks forward? Backward? Left? Right?
11Tic-Tac-Toe on a Torus Where should X go to win? What if it is 0’s turn?
12Tic-Tac-Toe on the Torus Which of the following positions are equivalent in torus tic-tac-toe?How many essentially different first moves are there in torus tic-tac-toe?Is there a winning strategy for the first player?Is it possible to get a Cat’s Game (no winner)?
13Another surfaceWhat surface do you get when you glue together the sides of the square as shown?K2 (a Klein bottle)
14Life in a Klein bottle surface What happens as this creature travels through its Klein bottle universe?A path that brings a traveler back to his starting point mirror-reversed is called an orientation-reversing path. How many orientation-reversing paths can you find?A surface that contains an orientation-reversing path is called non-orientable.
15Tic-Tac-Toe on a Klein Bottle Where should X go to win?
16Tic-Tac-Toe on a Klein bottle How many essentially different first moves are there in Klein bottle tic-tac-toe?Is there a winning strategy for the first player?Is it possible to get a Cat’s Game?
17What happens when you cut a Klein bottle in half? It depends on how you cut it.Cutting a Klein bottleAnother Klein bottle video
18Three dimensional spaces How can you make a 3-dimensional universe that is analogous to the 2-dimensional torus?Is there a 3-dimensional analog to the Klein bottle?
19Name that SurfaceWhat two surfaces do these two gluing diagrams represent?
20What topological surface is this? Image from Plus Magazine
21Surfaces made from a square We have seen that the following gluing diagrams describe a topological sphere, torus, and Klein bottle.How many essentially different ways are their to glue the edges of a square in pairs? How many different topological surfaces result?
22Surfaces made from a square Which of these surfaces are orientable?Which represent a torus? A sphere? A Klein bottle? Something new?
23Two gluing diagrams can represent the same surface Try cutting apart surface E along a diagonal and regluing it to get one of the other surfaces.Try the same thing with surface F.Make sure to label the edges of the cut you make to keep track of which new edges get glued to each other.
25Is there an algorithm to tell which gluing diagrams represent which surfaces? Look at what happens if you walk around the corners of the square.In some gluing diagrams, all four corners glue up to form only one piece of the surface. In other diagrams, the corners glue in pairs.If you mark the 4 edges and 4 vertices of the square, each pair of edges glues up so that there are only 2 distinct edges on the glued up surface. Some vertices also get glued up to each other, so there may be only 1 or 2 distinct vertices in the final glued up surface.Label each diagram with the number of edges and vertices AFTER gluing.
26Edges, vertices, and faces TorusV = 1E = 2F = 1Klein bottleV = 1E = 2F = 1Projective planeV = 2E = 2F = 1SphereV = 3E = 2F = 1Projective planeV = 2E = 2F = 1Klein bottleV = 1E = 2F = 1
27What surfaces do these gluing diagrams represent? G = sphere, H = torus, I = Klein bottle, J = projective plane, K = torus, L = Klein bottleCompute the number of edges and vertices after gluing for each of these diagrams.
28Euler numberAll gluing diagrams that represent the same surface have the same relationship between number of vertices, edges, and facesGluing diagramSurfaceNumber of verticesNumber of edgesNumber of facesEuler numberABCDEFGHIJK
29Euler number + orientability is enough Any two gluing diagrams that represent the same surface have the same Euler number V – E + FAmazingly, it is also true that any two gluing diagrams that have the same Euler number and are both orientable represent the same surface!Similarly, any two gluing diagrams that have the same Euler number and are both non-orientable represent the same surface!So Euler number plus orientability is enough to determine the surface
30Gluing diagram puzzles Find a gluing diagram, in which all edges get glued in pairs, that does not represent a sphere, torus, Klein bottle, or projective planeWhat is the Euler number for these gluing diagrams? What surfaces do they represent?
31References and Resources The Shape of Space by Jeff WeeksTorus gamesGluing diagram animationsKlein bottle experimentshttp://plus.maths.org/content/os/issue26/features/mathart/applets2/experiments
32Dimension Informal Definitions 1-dimensional: Only one number is required to specify a location; has length but no area. Each small piece looks like a piece of a line.2-dimensional: Two numbers are required to specify a location; has area but no volume. Each small piece looks like a piece of a plane.3-dimensional: Three numbers are required to specify a location; has volume. Each small piece looks like a piece of ordinary space.