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Newton's Laws of Motion

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**Newton’s Contributions**

Invented Calculus Optics-Study of light. Suggested light is composed of all the colors. Reflecting Telescope Laws of Motion Theory of Gravitation

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**Newton’s First Law (Law of Inertia)**

An object at rest tends to stay at rest and an object in motion tends to stay in motion, unless acted upon by an unbalanced force.

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**Equal forces in opposite directions produce no change**

Balanced Forces Equal forces in opposite directions produce no change in motion.

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**Unbalanced Forces Unequal opposing forces produce an unbalanced force**

Causing change in motion.

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**If objects in motion tend to stay in motion, why don’t moving objects keep moving forever?**

Things don’t keep moving forever here on earth because there’s almost always an unbalanced force acting upon them. A book sliding across a table slows down and stops because of the force of friction. If you throw a ball upwards it will eventually slow down and fall because of the force of gravity.

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**Newton’s First Law (Law of Inertia)**

INERTIA is a property of an object. Inertia describes how much an object will resist a change in its motion. The more mass an object has, the greater its inertia.

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1st Law-Example Unless acted upon by an unbalanced force, this golf ball would sit on the tee forever.

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**What is an unbalanced force that acts on an object in motion?**

Friction! There are four main types of friction: Sliding friction: ice skating Rolling friction: bowling Fluid friction (air or liquid): when an object is travelling through air or water Static friction: friction between two objects that are not moving relative to each other

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**Inertia…explains why you need to wear a seatbelt.**

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Newton’s Second Law The force of an object is equal to its mass times acceleration. F = ma (we’ve used this before!)

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**Newton’s Second Law Force = Mass x Acceleration**

ACCELERATION of GRAVITY(Earth) = 9.8 m/s2 Weight is gravity acting on your mass Weight (force) = mass x acceleration of gravity Weight= mass x 9.8 m/s/s You are probably familiar with the unit of pounds for weight. We will use newtons instead.

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**For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.**

Newton’s Third Law For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.

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Newton’s 3rd Law For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. Book to earth Table to book

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Think about it . . . What happens if you are standing on a skateboard and push against a wall? You slide in the opposite direction (away from the wall), because you pushed on the wall but the wall pushed back on you with equal and opposite force. Why does it hurt so much when you stub your toe? When your toe exerts a force on a rock, the rock exerts an equal force back on your toe. The harder you hit your toe against it, the more force the rock exerts back on your toe (and the more your toe hurts).

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Newton’s Third Law A bug with a mass of 5 grams flies into the windshield of a moving 1000kg bus. Which will have the most force? The bug on the bus or The bus on the bug

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**Newton’s Third Law The force would be the same (equal and opposite)**

Force (bug)= m x A Force (bus)= M x a The bug is accelerated a lot because of its small mass. The bus is not accelerated very much because of its large mass. Think I look bad? You should see the other guy!

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**Reaction: road pushes on tire Action: tire pushes on road**

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**What Laws are represented?**

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