Presentation on theme: "1 Renewable Energy in Jordan - Desalination of Brackish Water by Solar Energy By: Salah Azzam Director of Energy Research Program National Center for Research."— Presentation transcript:
1 Renewable Energy in Jordan - Desalination of Brackish Water by Solar Energy By: Salah Azzam Director of Energy Research Program National Center for Research and Development
2 1- RE Resource Assessment 2- Current RE Utilizations in Jordan 3- SOLAR WATER PUMPING IN REMOTE AREAS 4- SOLAR BRAKISH WATER DESALINATION Introduction
3 key research areas of NCRD include: Introduction
Energy Situation in Jordan -- I Year Crude Oil and Oil Derivatives Renewable Energy Natural Gas Imported Electricity SUM
Cost of Energy Consumed Energy Imported Bill (million JD) Energy costs as percentage of Imports & Exports Exports%Imports%GDP% Energy Situation in Jordan --- II
I- RE Resource Assessment Dr. Christina Class, INCOSOL 20126
Map of Global Solar Radiation over Jordan (MEMR) and Royal Geographical Center, developed by Risø in 1989,(W.h/m 2 /day)
Solar Exclusion Map “Action Plan for high priority renewable energy initiatives in Southern and Eastern Mediterranean Area” (REMAP), 2007 (REMAP
Conclusions- solar potential With all these restrictions, 5% of the surface of Jordan is estimated to be suitable for developing solar plants. This figure would involve 100 GW = 250 TW.h Solar generation capacity economic potential estimation has been carried out : reducing the economic potentially feasible area to 15 km to the 132 kV grid boundary. ► 1% of the surface of Jordan. This area means 20 GW of installed capacity, with an electrical production of 50,000 GWh, being the current annual electrical consumption in Jordan around 12,000 GWh
Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources (MEMR), with cooperation with Royal Geographic Center, has provided wind resource map in Jordan at 50 m height a.g.l.:
Exclusion Criteria The application of this filter allows estimating the available area around 41 % of the total surface of Jordan. Distance >1000 m of a Residential areas, noise < 40 db. Distance < 100 m from the axis of a regional road, Distance < 200 m from the axis of highway. Lakes and dams (hydrology). Water covered areas are neglected in the estimation of wind. Distance less than 75 km of a line of electric transmission.
Wind Power Exclusion Map The application of this filter allows estimating the available area around 16 % of the total surface of Jordan. Taking into account these figures, the wind technical potential is 3.6 GW.
Hydro-power Potential 1- King Talal dam spanning the river Zarqa, 5 MW. 2- Aqaba thermal power station 5 MW. 3- Khirbit Al Samra WWTP 3.5 MW The total capacity of hydropower is 13.5 MWe, the total amount of electricity generated, in 2012, by hydro-units was 57.6 GWh. Proposed RED-DEAD Canal : 800 ‑ 1000 MW
Biogas – Organic Waste Summary on potential for electrical power generation in 12 Governorates from 7 substrates, 96.5MW, 273 MW th Energy in fertilizers MWh th /a % N907, % P2O5P2O5 814, % K2OK2O61,1843.4% TOTAL1,782,863
Potential of Biogas Energy in MSW Landfills Period of landfill, year Waste deposited, Gg Average yearly deposition, (Gg) Years remaining for closure Quantity of methane generated per year (Gg) Quantity of methane generated (Gg)-2006 Akaider201, Mafraq N.Shouneh Russaifa158, Al Ghabawi251, Dhuleil Salt Der alla Madaba Karak Tafila Shobak Ail Ma’an Aqaba
Total Energy in Landfills 356 MW
Solid Biomass The olive cake represents the solid biomass resources in Jordan tons of olive cake is generated every year with a rate of increase of 4.5% every year.
Geothermal Potential Most of these wells are discharging thermal water range in temperature from 30 to 62 C o. Azraq Well (Az-1) is the classic example of these wells. Azraq well is located about 2 km south west of North Azraq. Another well of importance is Smeika -1 well which is located at 17 km north of Safawi town. The temperature is 57°C and the total dissolved solids are about 600 ppm with high H 2 S smell. Several wells have been drilled during the oil exploration project by Natural Resources Authority.
SourceTheoretical Potential SOLAR Energy20 GW WIND Energy3.6 GW Biogas from biomass96.5 MWe and 273 MW th Biogas in Landfills356 MWe Hydropower MWe Geothermal1-Direct uses : residential and District heating, Agricultural uses, 2-Further exploration in high thermal gradient areas (Azraq Basin) Summary Assessments of Renewable Potentials in Jordan
II-CURRENT RE UTILIZATIONS S OLAR E NERGY – S OLAR W ATER H EATERS 12% in 2012 according to the last survey done by Department of Statistics (DOS). The total energy output was estimated at 380 GWh yearly. the total savings in the primary energy was 61, 218 toe. Assuming 24% penetration in the year 2020, The resulting energy savings are projected to be 760 GWh, or primary energy savings of toe.
S OLAR PV the total installed capacity was 0.5 MW in the year 2006, and 1.6 MW in Most of these units have been installed in the remote areas of Jordan, for the purpose of lighting, water pumping systems and have the capability of producing 3.21 GWh per year. Therefore, the savings in the primary energy is equivalent to 399 toe. This is expected to rise to 100 MW in the year 2020, equivalent to GWh per year, or toe in saving primary energy.
W IND E NERGY Two wind farms are in operation in the Northern Part of Jordan. The first was installed in Al- Ibrahemya in 1987 with a capacity of 320 kW. The second wind farm was installed in Hofa with a capacity of 1,125 kW. In 2006, the total capacity of these two wind farms was MW with output of 3.16 GWh per year, equivalent to 789 toe of primary energy mix). It is expected that 500 MW will be available in 2020, with a capacity of GWh. This has a potential saving of 272,957 toe of primary energy.
Biogas In 2006, the total installed capacity of bio-energy was about 3.5 MW in the Russaifa Biogas Plant, and Khirbit ALsamra WWTP has installed, 6.5 MW in 2011, working on digestion of waste water, a total of 10 MWe is the total installed capacity in the year Capable of producing GWh yearly. This has a potential primary energy equivalent savings of toe. The Jordan Bio–Gas Company (owned equally by CEGCO and Greater Amman Municipality) has continued to work on the organic waste treatment at the Rusaifa waste land fill. In 2007, the volume of solid and liquid waste treated, reached around 5440 tons, and the amount of electricity generated was 9,494 MWh, The plant consists of two parts, the first part seeks to restrict and use the gas emissions from the Rusaifa landfill for generating energy, and the second part handles the organic waste treatment away from the source. The waste treatment takes place via a special reactor for producing the bio–gas and organic fertilizers.
47203 tons of olive cake is generated every year with a rate of increase of 4.5% every year. Used for direct firing for domestic heating, fueling boilers, and in cement industry. The heat content in one kg of olive cake is equivalent to 0.46 kg of crude oil. The olive cake resources is equivalent to 21,241 t.o.e and saving toe in primary energy. Solid Biomass-Olive Cake
Hydropower The King Talal Dam has a 10 MW capacity installation, and there is a small hydropower project in Aqaba Water Company, The Khirbit Assamra WWTP installed 2 small micro hydro turbines of 3.5 MW at the inlet of the plant, to utilize the kinetic energy in waste water flows from the height difference between Amman and Zarqa cities. the total capacity of hydropower is 13.5 MWe with output 101 GW.h/year which is potential saving of toe of primary energy. Very small power plants could be developed in the urban water supply systems, but only for very small capacities. The only strong potential seems to be in the canal Red Sea – Dead Sea (600 MW), and in pumping storage in Al-Wehda Dam (200 MW).
Current and Future Installations of RE The RE Contribution in 2012 The Expected RE Contribution in 2020 Sector Capacity, MW Produced Energy (GW.hr) Produc ed Energy TOE Primary Energy Saved (TOE) Capacity, (MW) Produced Energy (GWh) Produce d Energy, (TOE) Savings in the Primary Energy (TOE) Solar Water Heaters Concentrated Solar Power(CSP) Photovoltaic (PV) Biogas Thermal, CHP, MWth Biogas Electricity, CHP, MWe Solid Biomass 47 Kton dry/year 21, Wind Energy Geothermal Hydropower Total Percentage of Renewable Energy in the Total Energy Mix. 5.28%2.11% 18.5% 10.7%
Conclusions The country has a good potential of RE resources, especially the solar energy. The country has drafted policies and regulations to promote technology deployment, (e.g. the renewable energy and EE has a national priority), The country has ‘Enabling Environment’ to deploy the technology like: The Existence of National Plans for R&D and Innovation, Adequate Human and Financial Resources, The Existence of RE & EE Labs.
Conclusions Solar/Wind Atlas GIS Model For Data Manipulation and Maps Building Digital Solar/Wind Atlas for Jordan based on Satellite and Land Measurements for DNI (Direct Normal Irradiance), GHI (Global Horizontal Irradiance), and DHI (Diffused Horizontal Irradiance). The development of new/more advanced models for assessing wind resources for wind farm development, wind turbine design, spatial planning, policy promotion, and other uses.
II- WATER Pumping Using Photovoltaic in Remote Areas Dr. Christina Class, INCOSOL
~100 PV Installations in Jordan kWp/year 27.2 kWp Brackish Water Desal kWp Water Pumping 72.5 kWp Rural Electrification 21.6 kWp Telecomm. Total kWp
31 Cost Items for a Diesel Pumping System Land Well digging Well casing Site preparation Guard room Site enclosure Diesel Engine Water pump Water storage tank Fuel storage tank Installation Piping Inspection Service Fuel Fuel transportation
32 Cost Items for a PV Pumping System Land Well digging Well casing Site preparation Guard room Site enclosure Water storage tank PV array PV array foundation PV array support structure Cabling PV array installation Inverter Piping Submersible electric pump Pump installation Inspection Service
33 Levelized Water Pumping Cost (LWC)
III- A PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM FOR SMALL SCALE BRACKISH WATER DESALINATION IN REMOTE AREAS
Overview Introduction The System System Sizing Measurements Economic Analysis Conclusion 35
Introduction 36 PROJECT SITE
The System 37
Photovoltaic System Sizing example: water pumping altitude difference: 40 m 3 m 3 /h during 6 working hours recovery rate (RO): 60 % 30 m 3 /day 3.27 kWh/day taking into account efficiency of the inverter, motor, pump as well as charge and discharge loos rate required daily output taking into account the efficiency of the PV cells, the daily input is kWh/day to retrieve the size of the PV array, we assume a solar radiation of 5.5 m 2 / day using the PV array size and panel area, maximum power delivered into load and a safety factor, we calculate the peak power of the PV generator 38
Overall Results ElementSizing Result PV Array kWp Battery Capacity43.5 kWh maximum PV charging current A maximum rated AC power output10.4 kVA 39
41 Temperature and Solar Radiation in 2011
42 Temperature and Solar Radiation in 2011
43 Temperature and Solar Radiation on June 14 th 2011
Efficiency Data 44
Economic Analysis PV System capital investment and personnel costs battery exchange every 7 years inverter and charge controller exchange after 7 and 10 years resp 2.33 JD / m 3 Diesel system capital investment and personnel costs generator replacement after 5 years filter exchange after 200 working hours lubrication oil exchange 15 x per year overhaul costs Diesel incl transportation 4.60 JD / m 3 45
Summary successful installation of a PV system for RO desalination of brackish water in the Jordan valley has been running for 16 months data collection started and will enable further research economically very feasible approach but high initial investment costs 46