Presentation on theme: "Renewable Energy in Jordan -"— Presentation transcript:
1 Renewable Energy in Jordan - Desalination of Brackish Water by Solar EnergyBy:Salah AzzamDirector of Energy Research ProgramNational Center for Research and Development
2 Introduction1- RE Resource Assessment2- Current RE Utilizations in Jordan3- SOLAR WATER PUMPING IN REMOTE AREAS4- SOLAR BRAKISH WATER DESALINATION
3 key research areas of NCRD include: Introductionkey research areas of NCRD include:
4 Energy Situation in Jordan --I Year2008200920102011Crude Oil and Oil Derivatives4426445447746141Renewable Energy128137141130Natural Gas269730862289873Imported Electricity98168313SUM7335773973577457
5 Cost of Energy Consumed Energy Situation in Jordan --- IICost of Energy ConsumedEnergy Imported Bill (million JD)Energy costs as percentage of Imports & ExportsExports%Imports%GDP%200827634922.918.32009191642.319.210.82010260352.22413.320114019713120
6 I- RE Resource Assessment Dr. Christina Class, INCOSOL 2012
7 Map of Global Solar Radiation over Jordan (MEMR) and Royal Geographical Center, developed by Risø in 1989 ,(W.h/m2/day)
8 Solar Exclusion Map“Action Plan for high priority renewable energy initiatives in Southern and Eastern Mediterranean Area” (REMAP), (REMAP
9 Conclusions- solar potential With all these restrictions,5% of the surface of Jordan is estimated to be suitable for developing solar plants. This figure would involve 100 GW = 250 TW.hSolar generation capacity economic potential estimation has been carried out : reducing the economic potentially feasible area to 15 km to the 132 kV grid boundary. ► 1% of the surface of Jordan. This area means 20 GW of installed capacity, with an electrical production of 50,000 GWh, being the current annual electrical consumption in Jordan around 12,000 GWh
10 Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources (MEMR), with cooperation with Royal Geographic Center, has provided wind resource map in Jordan at 50 m height a.g.l.:
11 Exclusion CriteriaThe application of this filter allows estimating the available area around 41 % of the total surface of Jordan.Distance >1000 m of a Residential areas, noise < 40 db.Distance < 100 m from the axis of a regional road,Distance < 200 m from the axis of highway.Lakes and dams (hydrology). Water covered areas are neglected in the estimation of wind.Distance less than 75 km of a line of electric transmission.
12 Wind Power Exclusion Map The application of this filter allows estimating the available area around 16 % of the total surface of Jordan. Taking into account these figures, the wind technical potential is 3.6 GW.
13 Hydro-power Potential 1- King Talal dam spanning the river Zarqa, 5 MW.2- Aqaba thermal power station 5 MW.3- Khirbit Al Samra WWTP 3.5 MWThe total capacity of hydropower is 13.5 MWe, the total amount of electricity generated, in 2012, by hydro-units was 57.6 GWh.Proposed RED-DEAD Canal : 800‑1000 MW
14 Biogas – Organic WasteEnergy in fertilizersMWhth/a%N907,13050.9%P2O5814,55045.7%K2O61,1843.4%TOTAL1,782,863Summary on potential for electrical power generation in 12 Governorates from 7 substrates, 96.5MW, 273 MW th
15 Potential of Biogas Energy in MSW Landfills Period of landfill, yearWaste deposited, GgAverage yearly deposition, (Gg)Years remaining for closureQuantity of methane generated per year (Gg)Quantity of methane generated (Gg)-2006Akaider201,450.8024610119.16Mafraq746.139N.Shouneh471.121189.738.69Russaifa158,000.0063051.7657.07Al Ghabawi251,606.008032366131.9Dhuleil564.615.17Salt519.48796.542.67Der alla312.61Madaba1418214.964.09Karak897.341.95Tafila13223.08312.518.32Shobak9221.810.05Ail1.610.1Ma’an243.36443.619.99Aqaba4-----------
17 Solid BiomassThe olive cake represents the solid biomass resources in Jordan.47203 tons of olive cake is generated every year with a rate of increase of 4.5% every year.
18 Geothermal PotentialMost of these wells are discharging thermal water range in temperature from 30 to 62 Co. Azraq Well (Az-1) is the classic example of these wells. Azraq well is located about 2 km south west of North Azraq.Another well of importance is Smeika -1 well which is located at 17 km north of Safawi town.The temperature is 57°C and the total dissolved solids are about 600 ppm with high H2S smell. Several wells have been drilled during the oil exploration project by Natural Resources Authority.
19 Summary Assessments of Renewable Potentials in Jordan SourceTheoretical PotentialSOLAR Energy20 GWWIND Energy3.6 GWBiogas from biomass96.5 MWe and 273 MWthBiogas in Landfills356 MWeHydropowerMWeGeothermal1-Direct uses : residential and District heating, Agricultural uses,2-Further exploration in high thermal gradient areas (Azraq Basin)
20 II-CURRENT RE UTILIZATIONS Solar Energy – Solar Water Heaters12% in 2012 according to the last survey done by Department of Statistics (DOS). The total energy output was estimated at 380 GWh yearly.the total savings in the primary energy was 61, 218 toe.Assuming 24% penetration in the year 2020, The resulting energy savings are projected to be 760 GWh, or primary energy savings of toe.
21 Solar PV the total installed capacity was 0.5 MW in the year 2006, and 1.6 MW in Most of these units have been installed in the remote areas of Jordan, for the purpose of lighting, water pumping systems and have the capability of producing 3.21 GWh per year. Therefore, the savings in the primary energy is equivalent to 399 toe.This is expected to rise to 100 MW in the year 2020, equivalent to GWh per year, or toe in saving primary energy.
22 Wind EnergyTwo wind farms are in operation in the Northern Part of Jordan. The first was installed in Al-Ibrahemya in 1987 with a capacity of 320 kW. The second wind farm was installed in Hofa with a capacity of 1,125 kW. In 2006, the total capacity of these two wind farms was MW with output of 3.16 GWh per year, equivalent to 789 toe of primary energy mix).It is expected that 500 MW will be available in 2020, with a capacity of GWh. This has a potential saving of 272,957 toe of primary energy.
23 BiogasIn 2006, the total installed capacity of bio-energy was about 3.5 MW in the Russaifa Biogas Plant, and Khirbit ALsamra WWTP has installed, 6.5 MW in 2011, working on digestion of waste water, a total of 10 MWe is the total installed capacity in the year Capable of producing GWh yearly. This has a potential primary energy equivalent savings of toe. The Jordan Bio–Gas Company (owned equally by CEGCO and Greater Amman Municipality) has continued to work on the organic waste treatment at the Rusaifa waste land fill.In 2007, the volume of solid and liquid waste treated, reached around 5440 tons, and the amount of electricity generated was 9,494 MWh, The plant consists of two parts, the first part seeks to restrict and use the gas emissions from the Rusaifa landfill for generating energy, and the second part handles the organic waste treatment away from the source. The waste treatment takes place via a special reactor for producing the bio–gas and organic fertilizers.
24 Solid Biomass-Olive Cake 47203 tons of olive cake is generated every year with a rate of increase of 4.5% every year.Used for direct firing for domestic heating, fueling boilers, and in cement industry.The heat content in one kg of olive cake is equivalent to 0.46 kg of crude oil. The olive cake resources is equivalent to 21,241 t.o.e and saving toe in primary energy.
25 HydropowerThe King Talal Dam has a 10 MW capacity installation, and there is a small hydropower project in Aqaba Water Company,The Khirbit Assamra WWTP installed 2 small micro hydro turbines of 3.5 MW at the inlet of the plant, to utilize the kinetic energy in waste water flows from the height difference between Amman and Zarqa cities.the total capacity of hydropower is 13.5 MWe with output 101 GW.h/year which is potential saving of toe of primary energy.Very small power plants could be developed in the urban water supply systems, but only for very small capacities. The only strong potential seems to be in the canal Red Sea – Dead Sea (600 MW), and in pumping storage in Al-Wehda Dam (200 MW).
26 Current and Future Installations of RE The RE Contribution in 2012The Expected RE Contribution in 2020SectorCapacity, MWProduced Energy (GW.hr)Produced Energy TOEPrimary Energy Saved (TOE)Capacity, (MW)Produced Energy (GWh)Produced Energy, (TOE)Savings in the Primary Energy (TOE)Solar Water Heaters15838055566121831676065260122436Concentrated Solar Power(CSP)100182.51569546162Photovoltaic (PV)1.63.21137.639945493Biogas Thermal, CHP, MWth15.7117100532914178.550268145704Biogas Electricity, CHP, MWe1074.4664041856150372.332018276811Solid Biomass 47 Kton dry/year21,241223593186233539Wind Energy1.4453.16272788.84500109594170272957GeothermalHydropower13.51018645250578644.8Total200678.261575245698968159Percentage of Renewable Energy in the Total Energy Mix.5.28%2.11%18.5%10.7%
27 ConclusionsThe country has a good potential of RE resources, especially the solar energy.The country has drafted policies and regulations to promote technology deployment, (e.g. the renewable energy and EE has a national priority),The country has ‘Enabling Environment’ to deploy the technology like:The Existence of National Plans for R&D and Innovation,Adequate Human and Financial Resources,The Existence of RE & EE Labs.
28 Conclusions Solar/Wind Atlas GIS Model For Data Manipulation and Maps Building Digital Solar/Wind Atlas for Jordan based on Satellite and Land Measurements for DNI (Direct Normal Irradiance), GHI (Global Horizontal Irradiance), and DHI (Diffused Horizontal Irradiance).The development of new/more advanced models for assessing wind resources for wind farm development, wind turbine design, spatial planning, policy promotion, and other uses.
29 II- WATER Pumping Using Photovoltaic in Remote AreasDr. Christina Class, INCOSOL 2012
30 ~100 PV Installations in Jordan 10 kWp/year112.1 kWp Water Pumping72.5 kWp Rural Electrification21.6 kWp Telecomm.27.2 kWp Brackish Water Desal.Total kWp
31 Cost Items for a Diesel Pumping System LandWell diggingWell casingSite preparationGuard roomSite enclosureDiesel EngineWater pumpWater storage tankFuel storage tankInstallationPipingInspectionServiceFuelFuel transportation
32 Cost Items for a PV Pumping System LandWell diggingWell casingSite preparationGuard roomSite enclosureWater storage tankPV arrayPV array foundationPV array support structureCablingPV array installationInverterPipingSubmersible electric pumpPump installationInspectionService
38 Photovoltaic System Sizing example: water pumpingaltitude difference: 40 m3 m3/h during 6 working hoursrecovery rate (RO): 60 % 30 m3/day 3.27 kWh/daytaking into account efficiency of the inverter, motor, pump as well as charge and discharge loos rate required daily outputtaking into account the efficiency of the PV cells, the daily input is kWh/dayto retrieve the size of the PV array, we assume a solar radiation of 5.5 m2 / dayusing the PV array size and panel area, maximum power delivered into load and a safety factor, we calculate the peak power of the PV generator
39 Overall Results Element Sizing Result PV Array 10.113 kWp Battery Capacity43.5 kWhmaximum PV charging currentAmaximum rated AC power output10.4 kVA
45 Economic Analysis PV System 2.33 JD / m3 Diesel system capital investment and personnel costsbattery exchange every 7 yearsinverter and charge controller exchange after 7 and 10 years resp 2.33 JD / m3Diesel systemcapital investment and personnel costsgenerator replacement after 5 yearsfilter exchange after 200 working hourslubrication oil exchange 15 x per yearoverhaul costsDiesel incl transportation 4.60 JD / m3
46 Summarysuccessful installation of a PV system for RO desalination of brackish water in the Jordan valleyhas been running for 16 monthsdata collection started and will enable further researcheconomically very feasible approach but high initial investment costs