Presentation on theme: "Important Symbiotic Relationships By: Abby Keller, Ryan Kilgore, and Maddie Irvin."— Presentation transcript:
Important Symbiotic Relationships By: Abby Keller, Ryan Kilgore, and Maddie Irvin
Coral/ Zooxanthellae Symbiosis Zooxanthellae produce the nutrients (phosphate, nitrates, and carbon) needed by coral through photosynthetic activities. Coral provides the zooxanthellae w/ protection and access to light (also provides steady supply of carbon dioxide for photosynthetic processes) coral gets nutrients, algae gets substances it needs- why coral reefs grow so close to surface of water- need sunlight for photosynthesis
Coral Bleaching Under environmental stress, corals may expel their zooxanthellae (produce pigments), which leads to a lighter or completely white appearance, hence the term "bleached". Zooxanthellae lose pigment. Could be caused by extreme sea temperatures and conditions.
Reef Making Zooxanthellae (live in tissues of polyps) help to create the reef foundation. Formed layer by layer, and made up of millions of polyps. Polyps build calcium carbonate onto the coral head continuously, creating a reef. Zooxanthellae help the coral to grow by building the foundation material for the reefs.
Malaria/Plasmodium Life Cycle 1. Anopholes mosquito bites infected person 2. Fertilization occurs in the mosquito’s digestive tract, and a zygote forms 3. Oocyst-sporozoites develop here 4. The infected mosquito bites another person- infects victim with sporozoites 5. Sporozoites liver cells merozoites 6. Merozoites grow and divide 7. Merozoites form gametocytes- complete life cycle in a new female mosquito
Importance of Malaria and the parasitic protist Plasmodium to the world 40% of worlds population is at risk of contracting malaria. The majority of those people are in Africa. It is one of the few remaining infectious diseases that has continued to persist in the modern era even though it is preventable and curable. WHO reports 247 million cases with 1 million deaths annually. Unreported- 300 million cases, 1-3 million deaths. Children under 5 are the most likely age group to die from malaria. 1 child dies every 45 seconds.
Tic-Tac-Toe! Q1. Why does the coral reef normally grow closer to the surface of the water? A1. Because the zooxanthellae need sunlight to perform photosynthetic activities
Tic-Tac-Toe! Q2. What do zooxanthellae do for the coral in the symbiotic relationship? A2. Produce the nutrients (such as phosphate, nitrate, and carbon) needed by the coral to survive and reproduce, provide coloration of coral, (transfer nutrients through translocation)
Tic-Tac-Toe! Q3. How does the coral get its color? A3. From the pigments that the zooxanthellae produce.
Tic-Tac-Toe! Q4. Bleaching can be caused by what? A4. Environmental stress, decline in zooxanthellae, loss of pigments in zooxanthellae, etc.
Tic-Tac-Toe! Q5. Coral reefs can be made up of what? A5. Millions of coral polyps, zooxanthellae
Tic-Tac-Toe! Q6. Where do zooxanthellae live? A6. In the tissues of reef-building polyps
Tic-Tac-Toe! Q7. What is the coral’s role in the symbiotic relationship? A7. Provide zooxanthellae with protection, access to light (for photosynthetic purposes)
Tic-Tac-Toe! Q8. What process causes coral to reach this state? A8. coral bleaching
Tic-Tac-Toe! Q9. What is the vector of malaria? A9. Female Anopholes mosquito
Tic-Tac-Toe! Q10. What part of the mosquito does fertilization of the male and female gametocytes? A10. mosquito’s digestive tract
Tic-Tac-Toe! Q11. What develops in the wall of the mosquito’s gut? A11. oocyst
Tic-Tac-Toe! Q12. The sporozoites, developed in the oocyst, migrate to the __________. A12. mosquito’s salivary gland
Tic-Tac-Toe! Q13. When the sporozoites enter the human, what type of cell do they first enter? A13. liver cell
Tic-Tac-Toe! Q14. What are the sporozoites called after they divide? A14. Merozoites
Tic-Tac-Toe! Q15. What do the merozoites infect? A15. red blood cells
Tic-Tac-Toe! Q16. At the end of the cycle, the merozoites divide to form _______. A16. gametocytes
Tic-Tac-Toe! Q17. What is the only diploid stage of the malaria cycle? A17. zygote
Tic-Tac-Toe! Q18. How does the plasmodium hide from the human’s immune system? A18. By spending most of its time inside the human liver and blood cells
Tic-Tac-Toe! Q19. What percent of the world is at risk for contracting malaria? A19. 40%
Tic-Tac-Toe! Q20. Is malaria preventable? Is it curable? A20. yes, yes
Tic-Tac-Toe! Q21. Annually about how many cases of malaria are reported? A21. 245-300 million
Tic-Tac-Toe! Q22. Annually about how many people die from malaria? A22. 1-3 million
Tic-Tac-Toe! Q23. Which group of people is most likely to die from malaria? – Children (under 5), teens, middle aged adults, or elderly people. A23. children under 5
Tic-Tac-Toe! Q24. Where (what continent) are most people at risk for contracting malaria? A24. Africa
Tic-Tac-Toe! Q25. How often does a child die from malaria? Every 30,45,60, or 90 seconds? A25. 45 seconds
Tic-Tac-Toe! Q26. How much zooxanthellae is lost to cause coral to bleach? 10-20%, 30-50%, OR 60-90% A26. 60-90%