2 Evolution of the Horse Eohippus Earliest ancestor to our present horse Small primitive horse about the size of a foxElongated skull, arched back, shortened tail, four functional toes on front feet, and three toes on hind feet54 million years old
4 Evolution of the Horse Mesohippus Appeared when grasslands formed Larger than Eohippus, teeth further evolved, three toes on front feet, better suited to out run enemiesLateral supporting toes decreased in size middle toe increased in strength35million years oldBecame extinct about 7 million years ago
6 Evolution of the Horse Merychippus Evolved in North America Adapted to the hard grasses of the plainsBeginning of the grazing horse of todaySize: 35in., gregarious and lived in herdsdeveloped grinding teeth similar to present day horse, lateral toes disappeared, middle toe thickened and hardened20 million years old
8 Evolution of the Horse Pliohippus First true monodactyl (one-toed animal)Teeth and limbs were the closest to present-day horseSpread into S. America, Asia, Europe, and Africa5 million years old8,000 year ago Equus became extinct in the Western Hemisphere and did not return until the Spanish brought horses in 1400’s
10 Evolution of the Horse Four Trends in the Line of Descent Reduction in the number of toesIncrease in the size of the cheek teethLengthening of the faceIncrease in body sizeEvolving along with the modern horse were other species of Equus I.e. donkeys, onager, and zebras
11 Evolution of the Horse Przewalski Horse Rediscovered in Mongolia in 1879Wild horse who maintained itself in Europe and Asia during 60 million years of evolutionSmall, heavily built, and yellowish colored with an erect manePrzewalski horse has 66 Chromosomes and the domestic horse has 64
13 Uses of the Horse and Inventions Early uses of horses transformed:TravelWarfareEconomicsCultureSocial OrganizationPolitical BoundariesLanguages
14 History of the Horse Quiz 1 1. What species of Equus is considered to be the first monodactyl?2. Reduction in number of toes, lengthening of the face and increase in body size are considered what?3. This species was said to be the size of a fox.4. This species lived 54 million years ago.5. What species is said to be 5 million old?6. What was the 2nd species we covered in class?
15 History of the Horse Quiz 1 7. What was the 3rd species we covered?8. List 4 out of the 7 uses for horses.9. What horse was rediscovered in 1879?10. What was the difference in chromosomes between the horse in #9, versus the modern day horse?
16 Uses of the Horse and Inventions Egyptians1680 BC Dynasty of Shepherd KindInvention of chariotReplaced AssesEgyptians had a large responsibility for the spread of domesticated horse100BC GreeceSiege of TroyDeveloped the snaffle bit
17 Uses of the Horse and Inventions RomeInvented the curved bitHorses used in the invasion of Britain 55BCAD MohammedArabs began to use horsesWild horses of Asia (now extinct) gave rise to the Arabian, Barb, and TurkThe Thoroughbred originated from these stocks.
18 Horses in the United States 1492 Columbus arrived in AmericaNo horses since 8000 years earlier, before Indians1493 Columbus brought horses back on second voyage to West IndiesConquistadors took horses from W.I. to S. America and Mexico1539 de Soto brought first horses into what is now U.S.Most Wild horses and Indian horses came from the Spanish Missions
19 Horses in the United States 1600’s Indians began riding horsesHow did horses change the Indians “way of life”?Colonist brought work horses from EuropeHow were horses used in “Colonial Life”?Plantation owners wanted smooth, comfortable horses to ride.Horse racing became popular about this time1730, plantation owners started importing English racehorses
20 Horses in the United States 1750 to 1850 Conestoga wagons were the major means of moving freightCattle ranching became popular, horses became an important method of working cattle.1861 Mail Service “Pony Express” beganOnly operated for 18 monthsUsed during warsArmy maintained horses until WWII
21 Growth and Decline of Horses in the U. S. “Golden Age” of horse extended from the1890’s to the mechanization of Agriculture.During this time everyone loved and respected the horse for its invaluableness1900- automobiles were a rich man’s means of transportation
22 Growth and Decline of Horses in the U. S. 1908- Henry Ford produced a car for $825Trucks, tractors, and improved highways soon followedThe number of horse in the U.S. increased until 1915What was once a necessity to every American’s everyday life is now used for mostly recreation and sport
24 AssignmentCreate a time line from the beginning of the Equus to the modern day horse. Include 2 facts for each of the era’s (Mesohippus, Eohippus, etc) we covered.Use a sheet of computer paper to complete the assignment.