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History of the Horse. Evolution of the Horse  Eohippus  Earliest ancestor to our present horse  Small primitive horse about the size of a fox  Elongated.

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Presentation on theme: "History of the Horse. Evolution of the Horse  Eohippus  Earliest ancestor to our present horse  Small primitive horse about the size of a fox  Elongated."— Presentation transcript:

1 History of the Horse

2 Evolution of the Horse  Eohippus  Earliest ancestor to our present horse  Small primitive horse about the size of a fox  Elongated skull, arched back, shortened tail, four functional toes on front feet, and three toes on hind feet  54 million years old

3 Eohippus

4 Evolution of the Horse  Mesohippus  Appeared when grasslands formed  Larger than Eohippus, teeth further evolved, three toes on front feet, better suited to out run enemies  Lateral supporting toes decreased in size middle toe increased in strength  35million years old  Became extinct about 7 million years ago

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6 Evolution of the Horse  Merychippus  Evolved in North America  Adapted to the hard grasses of the plains  Beginning of the grazing horse of today  Size: 35in., gregarious and lived in herds  developed grinding teeth similar to present day horse, lateral toes disappeared, middle toe thickened and hardened  20 million years old

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8 Evolution of the Horse  Pliohippus  First true monodactyl (one-toed animal)  Teeth and limbs were the closest to present-day horse  Spread into S. America, Asia, Europe, and Africa  5 million years old  8,000 year ago Equus became extinct in the Western Hemisphere and did not return until the Spanish brought horses in 1400’s

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10 Evolution of the Horse  Four Trends in the Line of Descent  Reduction in the number of toes  Increase in the size of the cheek teeth  Lengthening of the face  Increase in body size Evolving along with the modern horse were other species of Equus I.e. donkeys, onager, and zebras

11 Evolution of the Horse  Przewalski Horse  Rediscovered in Mongolia in 1879  Wild horse who maintained itself in Europe and Asia during 60 million years of evolution  Small, heavily built, and yellowish colored with an erect mane  Przewalski horse has 66 Chromosomes and the domestic horse has 64

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13 Uses of the Horse and Inventions  Early uses of horses transformed:  Travel  Warfare  Economics  Culture  Social Organization  Political Boundaries  Languages

14 1. What species of Equus is considered to be the first monodactyl? 2. Reduction in number of toes, lengthening of the face and increase in body size are considered what? 3. This species was said to be the size of a fox. 4. This species lived 54 million years ago. 5. What species is said to be 5 million old? 6. What was the 2nd species we covered in class? History of the Horse Quiz 1

15 7. What was the 3rd species we covered? 8. List 4 out of the 7 uses for horses. 9. What horse was rediscovered in 1879? 10. What was the difference in chromosomes between the horse in #9, versus the modern day horse? History of the Horse Quiz 1

16 Uses of the Horse and Inventions  Egyptians  1680 BC Dynasty of Shepherd Kind  Invention of chariot  Replaced Asses  Egyptians had a large responsibility for the spread of domesticated horse  100BC Greece  Siege of Troy  Developed the snaffle bit

17 Uses of the Horse and Inventions  Rome  Invented the curved bit  Horses used in the invasion of Britain 55BC  AD Mohammed  Arabs began to use horses  Wild horses of Asia (now extinct) gave rise to the Arabian, Barb, and Turk  The Thoroughbred originated from these stocks.

18 Horses in the United States  1492 Columbus arrived in America  No horses since 8000 years earlier, before Indians  1493 Columbus brought horses back on second voyage to West Indies  Conquistadors took horses from W.I. to S. America and Mexico  1539 de Soto brought first horses into what is now U.S.  Most Wild horses and Indian horses came from the Spanish Missions

19 Horses in the United States  1600’s Indians began riding horses  How did horses change the Indians “way of life”?  Colonist brought work horses from Europe  How were horses used in “Colonial Life”?  Plantation owners wanted smooth, comfortable horses to ride.  Horse racing became popular about this time  1730, plantation owners started importing English racehorses

20 Horses in the United States  1750 to 1850 Conestoga wagons were the major means of moving freight  Cattle ranching became popular, horses became an important method of working cattle.  1861 Mail Service “Pony Express” began  Only operated for 18 months  Used during wars  Army maintained horses until WWII

21 Growth and Decline of Horses in the U. S.  “Golden Age” of horse extended from the1890’s to the mechanization of Agriculture.  During this time everyone loved and respected the horse for its invaluableness  automobiles were a rich man’s means of transportation

22 Growth and Decline of Horses in the U. S.  Henry Ford produced a car for $825  Trucks, tractors, and improved highways soon followed  The number of horse in the U.S. increased until 1915  What was once a necessity to every American’s everyday life is now used for mostly recreation and sport

23 Growth and Decline of US Horse Production

24 Assignment Create a time line from the beginning of the Equus to the modern day horse. Include 2 facts for each of the era’s (Mesohippus, Eohippus, etc) we covered. Use a sheet of computer paper to complete the assignment.


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