3 What’s a Schedule? A schedule of reinforcement is a rule specifying… the arrangement and response requirements for reinforcemente.g., whether a reinforcer follows every behavior, every other behavior, etc.2 Simple SchedulesContinuous Reinforcement (CRF; FR1)The reinforcer follows every behaviorCRF results in rapid acquisition (good for teaching)CRF produces little resistance to extinctionExtinction (EXT)Discontinuation of a response-reinforcer contingency
4 Intermittent Reinforcement Some rather than all responses are reinforcedTwo main categoriesRatio schedules: the reinforcer is delivered after every X behaviorsInterval schedules: the FIRST behavior after X amount of time is reinforcedProduces better resistance to extinction than CRFGood for maintaining behavior
5 Ratio Schedules 2 Types: Fixed Ratio and Variable Ratio Fixed Ratio: the reinforcer is delivered after a fixed number of behaviorsDesignation: FR 5 (every 5th target response is reinforced)Produces high-rate responding – why?Produces a post-reinforcement pause (PRP)PRPs are proportional to the size of the ratioe.g., pieceworkNumber of responses required and the size of the SR
6 Fixed-Ratio Schedule of Reinforcement PRPSR+ delivered
7 Variable RatioThe reinforcer is delivered after an average number of behaviorsDesignation: VR 55, 4, 7, 6, 4, 3, 6, 7, 3Produces consistent, high rates with no PRPse.g., starting a lawn mowerClinical applications…First 5 responses to get reinf, then 10, then 15.
8 Tic-Tac-Toe VR Procedure 275231115932010Teacher picks maximum number of responses for an individual or group (e.g., 30)The smaller the #, the more likely it is that the learner(s) will meet the contingencyLearners fill in each square of tic-tac-toe grid with a # no greater than the maxTeacher fills box with numbers on slips of paperEach number several timesContingent on target behavior, student picks slip of paperIf on tic-tac-toe, cross out numberDeliver SR+ when 3 in a rowNumber of responses required and the size of the SR5
9 Classroom Lottery VR Procedure Students write their names on index cards after successfully completing assigned tasksCards go in a boxAfter a preset period of time (e.g., 1 week),…Teacher picks a card – that student is the winnerThe more cards earned, the more likely a student will be the winnerReggieLottery Box!
10 Considerations with Ratio Schedules Both FR and VR schedules have 2 major advantagesProduce high rates of respondingEasy to usePotential DisadvantageRatio strain can result from abrupt increases in ratio requirements
11 Interval Schedules 2 Types: Fixed Interval and Variable Interval Fixed Interval: the reinforcer is delivered for the first target response after a fixed period of time has elapsedDesignation: FI 60se.g., turning on the TV to watch your favorite showCharacteristicsProduces PRPs, resulting in scallop or break-and-run patternsSlow to moderate rate of responding
13 Variable Interval Schedule the reinforcer is delivered for the first behavior after an average period of time has elapsedDesignation: VI 60sproduces steady, moderate responding (no PRPs)e.g., checkingLimited Hold: a feature that can be added to any interval scheduleThe behavior must occur after the interval has elapsed, but within a specific period of timeDesignation: FI 5 min LH 30 s
15 Considerations with Interval Schedules Use if you want to produce low to moderate response ratesAdvantageFI schedules are relatively easy to use with a resetting timerPotential DisadvantageOff-task or other unwanted behavior may occur during the PRP
17 Thinning the Schedule of Reinforcement Schedule thinning: Gradually increasing the response ratio or the extent of the time intervalBenefitsThe student’s behavior becomes more durable (more resistant to extinction)More practical for caregivers to implementIf you move too quickly, you can produce ratio strainAggressionExtinction of respondingNot many guidelines are available to tell us how to do this
18 LeBlanc, Hagopian, Maglieri, & Poling (2002) Determine a reasonable terminal goal that’s appropriate to the age and functioning level of the learnerEstablish a series of steps between the initial value and the terminal value8-12 steps are recommendedIncrease 33% to 50% at each stepStay at one step at least 2 timesIf student is unsuccessful, go back a stepPeriodically probe a few steps ahead
19 LeBlanc et al.: Thinning from FR1 100%2FR43FR650%4FR95FR1233%6FR167FR218FR28
20 Differential Reinforcement of Rates of Responding DRH: Reinforcement of responses higher than a predetermined criterion (to produce a higher rate of responding)DRL: Reinforcement of responses lower than a predetermined criterion (to produce a lower rate of responding)3 TypesSpaced-responding: reinforcement is only available for responses separated by a given duration of time (IRT)Not used much b/c it’s difficult to calculate IRTFull session: reinforcement is delivered at the end of the session if the total number of responses during the session was less than or more than a criterionInterval: Total session is divided into equal intervals and reinforcement is delivered at the end of each interval in which the number of responses was less than or more than a criterion
21 Compound Schedules of Reinforcement Combine different types of schedulesConcurrent SchedulesDiscriminative SchedulesMultiple SchedulesChained SchedulesNondiscriminative SchedulesMixed SchedulesTandem Schedules
22 Concurrent Schedules2 or more contingencies of reinforcement operate independently and at the same time for 2 or more behaviorsUsed forReinforcer AssessmentsIntervention AssessmentsHanley et al. (2005) allowed individuals to choose which intervention they preferredFCT + Punishment was preferred to FCT + ExtinctionInterventionsHoch et al. (2002) – boys with autism could play alone or with siblingSibling was chosen when SR magnitude and quality were increasedUse this when you can’t or shouldn’t treat inappropriate behavior directly
23 Multiple Schedule A type of discriminative schedule Two or more schedules are presented one after anotherEach is correlated with a discriminative stimulusTiger and Hanley (2004)Different colored leis worn by the teacher were SDs correlated with schedules of reinforcement for attention
27 Minimum response criterion 15 s – 270 s5s–1s1 s – 60 sMinimum response criterion
28 Chained Schedule A type of discriminative schedule Differs from multiple schedule:Schedules in the chain occur in the same orderBehavior may be the same or different for each component of the chainConditioned reinforcement for the first element of the chain is presentation of the second elementThe last response is reinforced with most powerful reinforcer
29 Nondiscriminative Schedules Mixed (like multiple schedule without the SDs)Tiger and Hanley (2004) – conducted the same sessions without the teacher wearing leisTandem (like chained with out the SDs)
30 Use Caution…When extrapolating information about schedules from basic research to applied settingsMost applications of schedules only approximate lab schedulesMany uncontrolled variables in applied settings will influence a person’s sensitivity and insensitivity to a schedule of reinforcement
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