Goals for Today Brief overview of the philosophy of differentiated instruction Strategies Pre- and Formative Assessments Anchor activities (tic tac toe boards & learning menus) Think Dots The “Profiler”
Question #1 I have attended at least one presentation on the foundations and key principles of differentiation.
Question #2 My comfort level related to knowledge about the key principles of differentiation is high.
Question #3 If asked to identify at least three elements of differentiated instruction, I could name at least three.
Question #4 I am using at least three differentiation strategies regularly in my classroom.
Definition? “A flexible approach to teaching in which the teacher plans and carries out varied approaches to content, process, and product in anticipation of and in response to student differences in readiness, interests, and learning needs” Carol Ann Tomlinson
Ya got something simpler!?
“... an appropriate teacher response to learners’ needs.”
Why aren’t you differentiating?
You cannot discover new oceans unless you have the courage to lose sight of the shore. G You cannot discover new oceans unless you have the courage to lose sight of the shore.
REMEMBER THAT NOTHING THAT’S GOOD WORKS BY ITSELF JUST TO PLEASE YOU. YOU’VE GOT TO MAKE THE DAMN THING WORK. --Thomas Edison
Differentiation – 3(4) sets of 3(4) 1. On-Going Assessment 2. Flexible Grouping 3. Choices 1.Readiness 2.Interest 3.Learning Profile 1. Content - INPUT (what I want them to learn) 2. Process (how I want them to learn) 3. Product - OUTPUT (how they show me what they know) 4. Environment (offers opportunities for different ways of learning)
Other types of pre-assessments People construct new knowledge by building on their current knowledge. Quick Write - might sound very ordinary, but as a pre-assessment it can reveal a lot by asking a ‘big idea’ question; student answers can uncover what they understand, what misconceptions they may have, or the reasoning processes they are using. They are given only 1-3 minutes to write an answer (thus 'quick write') Example: "How do electrical devices work?" Graphic Organizer - there are so many - you might want to consider a Venn diagram, a word/idea web, a cause/effect chart, a flow-chart, a sequence chart; something you’ve used as a pre-write; (KWL is really common, so don’t use for this assignment please). GO Word Splash Activity - content vocabulary is placed on a board, chart, large paper in a random ‘splash’. Students are asked to use the words in sentences, a paragraph, captioned drawing, or diagram.GO Cloze Writing - fill in the blank using a vocabulary bank Line Continuum - usually used with 5-10 agree/disagree or true/false statements about the upcoming topic/unit; students place themselves on a continuum line about what level of comfort they may have with answering the question; for each question there usually is new movement. DOTSDOTS Graffiti Wall - Use large butcher paper and title it with a theme or big idea or topic from unit (i.e. Ancient Greece) Students over a certain amount of time (a day-a week) write thoughts/ideas/opinions that come to mind regarding the title. Have them initial each. Keep track of what students record. The graffiti wall then can be used throughout the unit by adding new information, correcting misconceptions, categorizing, developing vocabulary, etc. for you to listen to later.
Other types of pre-assessments Yes/No Cards - Students make a large index card with Yes (or "Got It") on one side, No ("No clue") on the other side. Teachers ask an introductory or review question. Students who know the answer hold up the Yes card, if they might have the answer they hold the No card. Then do a quick Think/Pair/Share. This short assessment can give a quick look at what the group is ready for/understands/'gets'. Example: Use when introducing vocabulary words that students need as a knowledge base for a specific unit of study. Entrance Cards- As students enter for the day give them a small index card and ask them to respond to a displayed sentence or short paragraph which shares a specific idea that will be taught during the unit displayed in the room. They might ask questions or add more information to the displayed statement. Entry Square Off/or 4 Corners - Place a card in each corner of the room labeled as: No Path, Rocky Path, Smooth Path, and Paved Path. Teach them the meaning of the analogy of "path" in their learning. Make a statement or ask a question about the topic/unit of study (i.e. "The moon has no gravity.") Instruct the students to go to the corner of the room that matches their comfort level with what they are thinking or where they are with the statement. As a group, those in each corner discuss what they know about the statement/question. Briefly visit each corner to listen to their conversations or they can record the conversations onto an audio tape. Exit Card EntryExit Card
Pre-Assessing Using Graphic Organizers Define it…Give an example… Give a non-example…Ask a question about it…
Entry Cards: Earth Science Name: Draw the orbit of the Earth around the sun. What causes the seasons? Why is it warmer in the summer than in the winter?
Exit Cards: Earth Science Name: Draw the orbit of the Earth around the sun. What causes the seasons? Why is it warmer in the summer than in the winter? Did your opinion about any of these things change as a result of today’s class? Pre
Exit Card Name Question: Rate yourself: 1 = high confidence 2 = medium confidence 3 = I’m not sure on this Would you help someone else learn this? YES Not at this time On-going Assessment
Place Gender Dot here— Red = female, Blue = male Circle one (from survey results) Visual—Auditory—Kinesthetic Circle one (from survey results) Analytical—Practical—Creative Circle one (from survey results) VL—LM—VS—BK—M—N—Intra—Inter List: Favorite Subjects Personal Interests Flexible Grouping: Pre-Assess - Learning Profile Individuals learn differently. Cultural Significance
Differentiation – 3 sets of 3 Much learning occurs through social interaction. 1. On-Going Assessment 2. Flexible Grouping 3. Choices 1.Readiness 2.Interest 3.Learning Profile 1.Content 2.Process 3.Product
#1___________ #2___________ #3___________ #5___________ #4___________ Who’s in YOUR learning network?
Guidelines for managing flexible groups… CHOICE Have Anchor Activities ready, available and organized.
“I’m Not Finished” Freddie It takes him an hour-and- a-half to watch 60 Minutes
Anchor activities are: Ongoing assignments that students can work on independently throughout a unit, a grading period or longer.
The Purpose of an Anchor Activity is to: Provide meaningful work for students when they finish an assignment or project, when they first enter the class or when they are “stumped”. Provide ongoing tasks that tie to the content and instruction. Free up the classroom teacher to work with other groups of students or individuals.
Work best: When expectations are clear and the tasks are taught and practiced prior to use. When students are held accountable for on task behavior and/or task completion.
Best Idea for Constructing these… Easier or something presented at the beginning of unit More challenging Easier or something presented at the beginning of unit
Matter - directions 1. Pick any square(s) on the board for your project. 2. You should pick enough squares to total 40 points. Example any square 7, 8, or 9 = 40 points OR square = 40 points (for example). 3. You may go over the number of points. For example doing squares 1, 2, and 3. The extra will be counted for extra credit (up to 10 points can be earned). However, you must have met the requirements of the square and have a quality product(s). 4. Turn this sheet in with your project(s) and label with your name and hour.
Matter 1. Create a collage of an element. Include the name of the element and its atomic number and uses in our daily lives. For example: Gold – include pictures of jewelry and other uses. 2. Make a set of 51 flash cards using all the bold vocabulary from Chapters 1, 2, and 3. Write or type word on one side and the definition on the other side. 3. Complete all Chapter Reviews for Chapters 1, 2, and 3. Write our questions and answers. Use p. 30, p. 54 and p. 80 – all items. 4. Create a poster explaining the difference between the 4 classes of matter. Give examples and use pictures for each class. 5. Your choice – must be approved before you begin. 6. Give a class demonstration on a physical and chemical change. Have all approved supplies ready. Have enough supplies so students in class can repeat demonstration. 7. Write and illustrate a children’s story of the journey of a water drop going through different phases. Read the book to the class. 8. Make up a song that you would perform for us. Use vocabulary from Chapter 1, 2, or 3, but your song should explain vocabulary or concepts. 9. Make a board game using at least 35 of the 51 vocabulary words in Chapters 1, 2 and
Algebra Choice Board 1. Summarize the most important information about linear functions and put it to a beat. 2. Draw the sequence of events to graph a linear equation on a timeline. 3. Create a way to remember how to graph linear equations given in standard form. 4. Reflect on the application of linear functions to something in your life in your journal. 5. WILD CARD !!! Your choice after getting approval. 6. Create a series of at least six cartoon frames to capture the most important information about linear functions. 7. Condense the information about linear functions and create an advertisement, banner, or slogan. 8. Act a short skit that conveys the life of a linear function. 9. Write a poem that conveys the main ideas about linear functions.
Free Choice Proposal Form Name:______________________ Teacher’s Approval:___________ Free – Choice Proposal Form Proposal Outline 1.What specific topic or idea will you learn about? 2. What criteria should be used to grade it? 3. What will your final product be? 4. What materials will you need from the teacher to create this product?
Free Choice Proposal Form Name:______________________ Teacher’s Approval:___________ Free – Choice Proposal Form for Point-Based Menu Points Requested:_____ Points Approved:_____ Proposal Outline 1.What specific topic or idea will you learn about? 2. What criteria should be used to grade it? 3. What will your final product be? 4. What materials will you need from the teacher to create this product?
KINDS of LEARNING MENUS MENU: Main Dishes, Side Dishes, and Desserts Show & Tell Triarchic Choices
Entrée (Select One) Draw a picture that shows what happens during photosynthesis. Write two paragraphs about what happens during photosynthesis. Create a rap that explains what happens during photosynthesis. Diner Menu – Photosynthesis Appetizer (Everyone Shares) Write the chemical equation for photosynthesis. Side Dishes (Select at Least Two) Define respiration, in writing. Compare photosynthesis to respiration using a Venn Diagram. Write a journal entry from the point of view of a green plant. With a partner, create and perform a skit that shows the differences between photosynthesis and respiration. Dessert (Optional) Create a test to assess the teacher’s knowledge of photosynthesis.
Show-And-Tell Boards All students have the same TASK, but have a choice of SHOW AND TELL. Top row – what they could show Bottom row – what they could tell Need 1 SHOW & 1 TELL
What is Tiering? The goal of a tiered assignment is to ensure that each student has to stretch a bit to complete the work, but is able to do so with appropriate effort and support.
To Tier or Not To Tier? Based on pre-assessments Degree of difficulty of original assignment Does it make sense to have multiple assignments? DON’T REINVENT THE WHEEL!
1. Name and define the 6 steps in the experimental design process. 6. Create a data chart for an experiment that has an independent and dependent variable. Graph this data and label the graph properly. 5. Suppose an experimental design process with several trials showed that chickens lay more eggs when listening to music. What additional questions would a scientist ask about this experiment? 2. Design a question that would have an independent and a dependent variable. Label each variable. 3. Change a question into a hypothesis. 4. Change a hypothesis into a prediction statement using IF…, And…, Then...
. What are the 6 steps of the experimental design process?. Explain the difference between an independent and dependent variable. 3. Write a hypothesis from this question: Does listening to music cause chickens to lay more eggs?. Using If…, And… Then…, write a prediction statement for the following hypothesis: Listening to music causes chickens to lay more eggs 5. Make a double T chart that would compare an experiment where music is played for one group of chickens and not for another to see if music affects the number of eggs they lay. Label each variable. 6. Make a graph using the following information. Label which axis is the independent and dependent variable. Not playing music—5 chickens lay 17 eggs. Playing music—5 chickens lay 25 eggs. Basic. What are the 6 steps of the experimental design process?. Explain the difference between an independent and dependent variable. 3. Write a hypothesis from this question: Does listening to music cause chickens to lay more eggs?. Using If…, And… Then…, write a prediction statement for the following hypothesis: Listening to music causes chickens to lay more eggs 5. Make a double T chart that would compare an experiment where music is played for one group of chickens and not for another to see if music affects the number of eggs they lay. Label each variable. 6. Make a graph using the following information. Label which axis is the independent and dependent variable. Not playing music—5 chickens lay 17 eggs. Playing music—5 chickens lay 25 eggs. Basic
Basic Cube Record Sheet. STEPS WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE? Independent Variable - Dependent Variable -. MUSICAL EGGS Question: Does listening to music cause chickens to lay more eggs? Hypothesis:. PREDICTING EGGS Hypothesis: Listening to music causes chickens to lay more eggs. Prediction: If… And… Then… 5. DOUBLE “T” 6. GRAPH IT
What is your preferred Learning Profile? Write Draw Act Sing Build
Differentiation “Profiler” You have just attended a stimulating workshop on differentiated instruction and you feel motivated to let the world know more about differentiated instruction. Your “world” might be a group of students, parents, fellow teachers, and/or the general public. You will join a group of workshop participants who are as motivated as you are and share your excitement about differentiate instruction to spread the news about this teaching and learning philosophy!
Differentiation “Musician” Your mission is to write and perform a song (any style of music) about the experience of observing in a classroom which is focused on developing units and using strategies that help to differentiated instruction. You can make up a new tune or write new lyrics that fit with an existing melody. You should have at least one verse about each of the three sets of three elements that should be the focus of a differentiated classroom. Include a chorus about the goal of differentiated instruction. Make it personal and fun.
Differentiation “Writers” Your task is to write an article for USA Today telling the public how differentiated instruction helps teacher to meet the needs of diverse learners in their classrooms. You should minimally include the following information: How students differ as learners. How student learning differences affect how students learn. Evidence you have that explains that students work harder when what they are asked to do connect to something they are interested in doing and/or connects to their learning profile. Identify classroom techniques/strategies that support the achievement of students who have different readiness levels, different interests and/or different learning profiles.
Differentiation “Builders” Your group has been commissioned to build a model of a differentiated classroom for a local museum featuring best practices in education. Your model must accurately reflect the elements of differentiated instruction in a classroom where these elements are being practiced. You can build a small model using Play Dough, pipe cleaners, aluminum foil, a flashlight, etc., or you may build a larger model using garbage bags, and anything else you can creatively devise.
Differentiation “Actors” Your job is to create and perform an episode of a children's or teenager’s television program. This episode should be all about differentiated instruction. Be sure to include the following information: What is differentiated instruction. What it is like being in a classroom where differentiated instruction is practiced. How you (the student) will benefit from being in a classroom where differentiated instruction is practiced.
Differentiation “Artists” Create a poster – or series of posters – that clearly illustrates the key points of what it means to differentiate instruction. Your poster(s) will be designed for those who are unable to read, so it/they must communicate clearly through pictures and graphics, and should not rely heavily on captions. Your posters should depict the three sets of three elements of differentiated instruction. Poster paper, markers and other materials are available; let your instructor know what else you need.
Advantages and Disadvantages of a table, graph, report.
TTT: Things Take Time One unit at a time One lesson at a time One student at a time One strategy at a time One grade level at a time
Where Do I Begin? Start small – but start! First Steps: ****** ****** Next Steps Leaps ****** Bounds Who will help or support you? ___________________ ******
Yes but… I teach in a four wall box of drab proportions, But choose to make it a place that feels like home. I see too many students to know them as they need to be known, But refuse to let that render them faceless in my mind. I am overcome with the transmission of a canon I can scarcely recall myself, But will not represent learning as a burden to the young. I suffer from a poverty of time, And so will use what I have to best advantage those I teach. I am an echo of the way school has been since forever, But will not agree to perpetuate the echo another generation. I am told I am as good a teacher as the test scores I generate, But will not allow my students to see themselves as data. I work in isolation, And am all the more determined to connect my students with the world. I am small in the chain of power, But have the power to change young lives. There are many reasons to succumb, And thirty reasons five times a day to succeed. Most decisions about my job are removed from me, Except the ones that matter most. C. Tomlinson
Exit Card Name Question: Explain how you would use a strategy (from this presentation) that you could use in YOUR classroom. Rate yourself: 1 = high confidence 2 = medium confidence 3 = I’m not sure on this Would you help someone else learn this? YES Not at this time