Presentation on theme: "Industrial Revolution. Key Terms Flying Shuttle- was one of the key developments in the industrialization of weaving. It allowed a single weaver to weave."— Presentation transcript:
Key Terms Flying Shuttle- was one of the key developments in the industrialization of weaving. It allowed a single weaver to weave much wider fabrics, and it could be mechanized, allowing for automatic machine looms. It was patented by John Kay (1704–c. 1779) in 1733.
Spinning Mule-is a machine used to spin cotton and other fibers in the mills. Samuel Crompton invented the spinning mule or mule jenny in 1779. The spinning mule spins textile fibers into yarn by an intermittent process.
Spinning Jenny-is a multi-spindle spinning frame It was invented in 1764 by James Hargreaves The device reduced the amount of work needed to produce yarn, with a worker able to work eight or more spools at once. This grew to 120 as technology advanced.
Cotton Gin-a machine that automated the separation of cottonseed from the short-staple cotton fiber. Eli Whitney was the inventor of the cotton gin and a pioneer in the mass production of cotton. Prior to his invention, farming cotton required hundreds of man-hours to separate the cottonseed from the raw cotton fibers.
Elias Howe- was an American inventor and sewing machine pioneer. Contrary to popular belief, Howe was not the first to conceive of the idea of a sewing machine. Many other people had formulated the idea of such a machine before him, one as early as 1790. Howe originated significant refinements to the design concepts of his predecessors, and on September 10, 1846, he was awarded the first United States patent (U.S. Patent 4,750) for a sewing machine using a lockstitch design. His machine contained the three essential features common to most modern machines: a needle with the eye at the point, a shuttle operating beneath the cloth to form the lock stitch an automatic feed
8 ● In 1846, the first American patent was issued to Elias Howe for "a process that used thread from two different sources." ● Elias Howe's machine had a needle with an eye at the point. The needle was pushed through the cloth and created a loop on the other side; a shuttle on a track then slipped the second thread through the loop, creating what is called the lockstitch. Sewing Machine- Before the invention of the sewing machine people had to create garments by hand.
9 Sewing machines did not go into mass production until the 1850's, when Isaac Singer built the first commercially successful machine. Singer built the first sewing machine where the needle moved up and down rather than the side-to-side and the needle was powered by a foot treadle. Previous machines were all hand-cranked. However, Isaac Singer's machine used the same lockstitch that Howe had patented. Elias Howe sued Isaac Singer for patent infringement and won in 1854.
10 Sewing Machine Videos ● Video 1 Video 1 ● Video 2 Video 2
11 Ebenezer Butterick- changed the face of home sewing forever by creating the first graded (different sizes) sewing pattern. The company he founded continues to lead the way in make-it-yourself fashions 150 years later. ● In the beginning, he only offered men's' and boys' patterns. ● In 1866 they began offering women's' dress patterns.
12 ● Paper Pattern- A pattern in sewing and fashion design is the paper or cardboard template from which the parts of a garment are traced onto fabric before cutting out and assembling ● Before Paper Patterns, people who sewed would lay out their fabrics and then hand draw the fabric cuts they wanted to made. ● Ellen Butterick, wife of Ebenezer, remarked to her husband how handy it would be if she had some sort of pattern to guide her in making her fabric cuts, a pattern that was the correct size for her son. Thus paper patterns were born.
13 ● Charles Worth- a fashion designer who is widely considered the Father of Haute Couture. ● He is credited as the first designer to put labels onto the clothing he manufactured. ● Worth's designs are notable for his use of lavish fabrics and trimmings, his incorporation of elements of historic dress, and his attention to fit.
14 ● Ready-to-Wear; is the term for factory-made clothing, sold in finished condition, and in standardized sizes. ● Also called prêt-à-porter. ● Military uniforms were the first ready-to-wear garments to be mass-produced during the War of 1812. ● High-quality ready-to-wear garments for men became generally available soon thereafter.
15 ● Levi Strauss-the inventor of the quintessential American garment, the blue jean. ● In 1872 Jacob Davis, a Reno Nevada tailor, writes to Levi Strauss, telling him about the process he invented to rivet the pocket corners on men’s pants to make them stronger. He suggests the two men take out a patent on the process together and Levi agrees. ● In 1873 Levi Strauss & Jacob Davis are granted a patent on the process of riveting pants by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office on May 20. It is patent number 139,121 and this is the invention of the blue jean. ● Originally called waist overalls
Standardized Sizes- In 1937, the U.S. Department of Agriculture prepared to conduct a study of women's body measurements for the purpose of creating a sizing system which the entire industry could follow. Before, there were no standardized sizes and there were no guidelines for sizing patterns or clothing. In the mid 1940’s companies asked the National Bureau of Standards to do research and provide a reliable industry sizing guide. The resulting commercial standard was distributed by NBS to the industry for comment in 1953, formally accepted by the industry in 1957, and published asCommercial Standard (CS)215-58 in 1958.Commercial Standard (CS)215-58
World War I (1914-1918)-The wartime economy, the change in population demographics, the expanding domestic economy (with more people working), and the shift to women in the workforce all had a tremendous impact on fashion. Before WWI, France was the main fashion house. People looked to French designers to see what was in style. The most lasting change happened to women's hemlines. Hems which had risen from floor length to ankle length prior to the war, rose to mid calf length by 1916, and have stayed that high, or higher, ever since.
World War II(1939-1945)-The government found it necessary to ration food, gas, and even clothing during that time. Nylon and wool were both needed by the military and Japanese silk was banned in the USA after the attack on Pearl Harbor. New York Emerged as a Fashion Leader. Girdles were out as the rubber was needed for the war effort. Pants became a staple of women who worked in factories and soon gained widespread acceptance for casual wear In February of 1947, Christian Dior introduced his New Look, a style that shocked and outrages some and thrilled others.
Christian Dior- a French fashion designer whom is one of the most important couturiers of the twentieth century. In 1947, he launched his first collection which featured the “New Look” The “New Look” consisted of rounded shoulders, a cinched waist, and a very fully skirt. A very feminine look. After years of military and civilian uniforms, restrictions, and shortages, Dior offered not merely a new look but a new outlook.
Coco Chanel- A famous French Fashion designer. She is the only fashion designer to appear in Time Magazine’s 100 Most Influential People of the 20th Century Chanel was credited with liberating women from the constraints of the "corseted silhouette" and popularizing the acceptance of a sportive, casual chic. Chanel popularized the “little black dress”. Chanel No. 5 is still one of the top grossing perfumes.
Key Terms Fast Fashion -Fast fashion is a contemporary term used by fashion retailers to express that designs move from catwalk quickly in order to capture current fashion trends. Fast fashion clothing collections are based on the most recent fashion trends presented at Fashion Week in both the spring and the autumn of every year.
Fast Fashion These trends are designed and manufactured quickly and cheaply to allow the mainstream consumer to take advantage of current clothing styles at a lower price. This philosophy of quick manufacturing at an affordable price is used in large retailers such as H&M, Zara, Peacocks, and Topshop. It particularly came to the fore during the vogue for "boho chic" in the mid-2000s.
Key Terms Internet- an electronic communications network that connects computer networks and organizational computer facilities around the world. The Internet has had a massive impact on fashion shopping, drastically changing not only the way we buy clothes but also the way in which we are marketed them. The internet has made fashion global!
A fashion capital is a location which is influential in fashion and in which fashion is important.
Traditionally, the four major fashion capitals are Paris, London, Milan and New York. In recent years, however, the importance of the fashion industry has grown in other cities, such as Tokyo, Hong Kong, Los Angeles, Rio de Janeiro, Shanghai, Sydney and Barcelona.
Largest fashion marketing center in the U.S. Known for the Seventh Avenue garment district in Manhattan Permanent showrooms of manufacturers from the U.S. and around the world Open weekdays year round New York City, New York
CaliforniaMart is the largest fashion and textile facility in the U.S. An 82-block garment district includes designers, wholesalers, manufacturers, and patternmakers. Hosts a fashion week five times a year Primarily serves the West coast
Paris, France Considered the world fashion leader Shows attract over 40,000 visitors and 1,100 exhibitors from 30 countries Prêt-à-porter Paris® shows twice a year at the same times as mass- produced lines but at different locations
Haute couture businesses are located in city “ fashion houses ” rather than in commercial buildings.
Chambre Syndicale De La Couture The Chambre Syndicale De La Couture is the regulating commission that determines which fashion design Sponsors a school to educate apprentices
Pierre Balmain Pierre Cardin Coco Chanel André Courrèges Christian Dior Jean Paul Gaultier Nicolas Ghesquière Hubert de Givenchy Daniel Hechter Christian Lacroix Christian Louboutin Marcel Marongiu Jean Patou Sonya Rykiel Yves Saint-Laurent Hedi Slimane Chantal Thomas Louis Vuitton Michel Abraham French Fashion Designers
ITALY Alta moda: The high fashion industry in Italy. Rome is the center for couture. Milan is the center for high- quality ready-to-wear. Florence is known for lower- priced ready-to-wear, menswear, children ’ s wear, and knitwear. Main collections are shown in fashion fairs prior to the French showings.
Italian Designers Giorgio Armani Byblos Dolce e Gabbana Fendi Salvatore Ferragamo Gianfranco Ferre Alberta Ferretti Gianni Versace
GREAT BRITAIN London is the major fashion center. Bond Street is the creative center. Fashion week twice a year Top ready-to-wear designers belong to a co- op association called London Designer Collections.
Jin Abe Barbara Bui Hiroko Koshino Junko Koshino Issey Miyake Hanae Mori Yuki Torii International Kansai Yamamoto Tokyo Designers
Designer Capitals Project Choose a country from the following list: China, France, Germany, India, Japan, Mexico Find the colors of the country ’ s flag and color the flag. Cut it out and paste it to the back of the map (leave room to paste the paper doll) Tell me which country you want and I will print out the paper doll. Cut out and color the paper doll and her clothes and past it to the back of the map along with the flag Choose a country from the following list: China, France, Germany, India, Japan, Mexico Find the colors of the country ’ s flag and color the flag. Cut it out and paste it to the back of the map (leave room to paste the paper doll) Tell me which country you want and I will print out the paper doll. Cut out and color the paper doll and her clothes and past it to the back of the map along with the flag