Presentation on theme: "FORENSIC BIOLOGY AND COURT ICITAP Senior Forensic Advisor Ted Smith."— Presentation transcript:
FORENSIC BIOLOGY AND COURT ICITAP Senior Forensic Advisor Ted Smith
Ted Smith - CV Education Graduate : Marshall University, School of Medicine, Huntington, WV 1999 Forensic Science/DNA Analysis Undergraduate: Marshall University College of Science, Huntington, WV, 1978 Biological Sciences WV State Police Academy, Institute, WV 1986 ICITAP Senior Forensic Advisor Mexico, Merida Initiative December 2009 – Present Iraq, Ministry of Interior Forensic ProgramSeptember 2007 – July 2009 Marshall University Forensic Science Center Special Project ManagerJanuary 2010-Present West Virginia State Police Director Forensic LaboratoryMarch September 2007 Quality Assurance ManagerJune March 2002 Supervisor DNA Laboratory July June 2001 Bench Scientist October July 1989 Marshall University College of Science Adjunct Professor2000 – 2007 ISC 205 Intro Forensic Science IST 445 DNA Forensics IST 482 DNA Applications
DNA Identification Perhaps the most significant advance in criminal investigation since the advent of fingerprint identification is the use of DNA technology to help convict criminals or eliminate persons as suspects.
Use of DNA Evidence Since 1987, DNA analysis has been used in tens of thousands of cases that resulted in conviction. El ADN se introdujo por primera vez como prueba en el sistema judicial de los Estados Unidos en La tecnología de ADN se ha convertido en una herramienta forense cada vez más poderosa para identificar o eliminar a las personas como autores de un delito cuando en el escenario del delito se dejan pruebas biológicas como saliva, tejidos, sangre, pelo o semen. Fuera del tribunal, el ADN puede dar importantes pistas de investigación para resolver problemas de identificación humana.
Sensitivity of DNA Analysis
Critical Factors….# (E) IS EVIDENCE PROTECTED FROM LOSS, CROSS TRANSFER, CONTAMINATION, AND /OR DELETERIOUS CHANGE? ASCLD/LAB Sensitivity of DNA Analysis Any cellular material can be used as a source of DNA. Age of evidence is not important!
Critical Factors…. # (E) DOES THE LABORATORY HAVE A WRITTEN OR SECURE ELECTRONIC CHAIN OF CUSTODY RECORD WITH ALL NECESSARY DATA WHICHPROVIDES FOR COMPLETE TRACKING OF ALL EVIDENCE? ASCLD/LAB Chain of Custody Demonstrate the integrity of the evidence from scene to court.
Critical Factors….# (E) ARE CONCLUSIONS AND OPINIONS IN REPORTS SUPPORTED BY DATA AVAILABLE IN THE CASE RECORD, AND ARE THE EXAMINATION DOCUMENTS SUFFICIENTLY DETAILED SUCH THAT, IN THE ABSENCE OF THE EXAMINER(S), ANOTHER COMPETENT EXAMINER OR SUPERVISOR COULD EVALUATE WHAT WAS DONE AND INTERPRET THE DATA? DNA Tool Ignored Crimes go unsolved. Authorities not following up; they continue to believe that freed defendants are guilty. Exonerated?
Wild & Wonderful WV
The Huntington Shopping Mall
Incidents at the Huntington Mall Year Two women, in separate incidents, were abducted at knife point in the mall’s parking lot. Both times the assailant wore a ski mask and forced the victims to close their eyes throughout the attack. In the first instance, the attacker drove around in the woman's car, repeatedly raped her, and stole a gold watch and $5. The victim opened her eyes briefly to note that the assailant wore brown pants and was uncircumcised. In the second case, the man repeatedly raped the woman and stole a gold watch. This woman was able to note the man's boots, jacket, and hair color. She also noted that he was uncircumcised.
Evidence Presented at Trial Characteristics of body fluid secretions from semen recovered from the evidence were consistent with defendant. A comparison of beard hair from the defendant was reported to be consistent with hair recovered from a victim's car. Partial visual identification of the defendant was made by one of the victims. One victim identified clothing that matched clothing found in the defendant's house. Both victims testified that the assailant was not circumcised, in common with the defendant. A distinctive smell about the assailant was noted by both victims and also was found at the defendant's workplace.
WV State v. Woodall On July 8, 1987, a jury found Glen Woodall guilty of first-degree sexual assault of one woman, first-degree sexual abuse of a second woman, kidnapping both women, and aggravated robbery of both women. He was sentenced by the circuit court to two life terms without parole and to 203 to 335 years in prison, to be served consecutively.
WV State v. Woodall In Woodall, the West Virginia Supreme Court was the first State high court to rule on the admissibility of DNA evidence. The court accepted DNA testing by the defendant, but inconclusive results failed to exculpate Woodall. DNA rulings have affected all of forensics!!!! Theory and practice are generally accepted among the scientific community. Techniques are generally accepted by the scientific community. Pretrial hearings are required to determine whether the testing laboratory's methodology was substantially in accord with scientific standards and produced reliable results for jury consideration. "...ideally, a defendant should be provided with the actual DNA sample(s) in order to reproduce the results. As a practical matter, this may not be possible because forensic samples are often so small that the entire sample is used in testing. Consequently, access to the data, methodology, and actual results is crucial...for an independent expert review.”
WV State v. Woodall On July 6, 1989, the West Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals affirmed Woodall's conviction. (385 S.E.2d 253). Woodall continued to file motions to allow DNA testing of the evidence. He filed several appeal petitions and habeas corpus petitions with both the trial court and with the West Virginia Supreme Court. The Court finally allowed the evidence to be released to the defense for additional DNA testing. This evidence was forwarded to Forensic Science Associates (FSA).
Forensic Science Associates (FSA) - CA
Sample DQα Woodall's reference 2, 3 Underpants of victim 2 3, 4 (sperm) Underpants of victim 2 1.2, 3 Denim skirt of victim 1 3, 4 (sperm) Denim skirt of victim 1 1.2, 4 Victim 1- reference 1.2, 4 Victim 2 - reference 1.2, 3 DQα Results Exonerate Woodall Assailant in both cases had the same DQα type and the type did not match Woodall!
100%, unequivocally, categorically WRONG Conventional body fluid identification Body and beard hair from the victim's car. Partial visual identification by a victim Identification of clothing by a victim Uncircumcised Distinctive smell identified by both victims Other investigative circumstances
Eyewitness Evidence Eyewitness misidentification is the single greatest cause of wrongful convictions nationwide, playing a role in more than 75% of convictions overturned through DNA testing. Innocence Project 2011 Tests conducted in 1979 have shown an enormous 54% swing from a non-guilty verdict, to that of guilty within the same case simply through the introduction of an eyewitness. (Loftus, 1979) Eyewitness evidence – though technically reliable in its own right – tends to convict innocent individuals in a devastatingly high proportion, estimated at 45%. (Loftus & Ketcham,1991)
All bad precedents begin as justifiable measures. — Julius Caesar, Roman general, statesman and writer ( B.C.) If you live long enough, you get accused of things you never did and praised for virtues you never had. — I.F. Stone, 20th-century American journalist
Center for Blood Research (CBR) - MA
CBR conducted RFLP & DQα analyses and eliminated three potential donors as sources of the sperm. Center for Blood Research (CBR) - MA Center for Blood Research DQα RFLP
Broward County Sheriff’s Office - FL
WV State v. Woodall As a result of the additional testing, West Virginia moved to dismiss Woodall's indictment on May 4, 1992, and the trial court granted the motion. Woodall served 4 years of his sentence in prison and spent a year under electronic home confinement. Glen Woodall was awarded $1 million USD from West Virginia for his wrongful conviction and false imprisonment.
Evidence Returns to Court in WV
1994 WV CODIS System Created Senate Bill 252 established the West Virginia Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) under the authority of the West Virginia State Police. Creation of the Marshall University Forensic Science Center to do data banking for WVSP
Remember - Critical Factor….# (E) ARE CONCLUSIONS AND OPINIONS IN REPORTS SUPPORTED BY DATA AVAILABLE IN THE CASE RECORD, AND ARE THE EXAMINATION DOCUMENTS SUFFICIENTLY DETAILED SUCH THAT, IN THE ABSENCE OF THE EXAMINER(S), ANOTHER COMPETENT EXAMINER OR SUPERVISOR COULD EVALUATE WHAT WAS DONE AND INTERPRET THE DATA? DNA Tool Ignored Crimes go unsolved. Authorities not following up; they continue to believe that freed defendants are guilty. Exonerated?
Reluctance to Accept DNA Identifications “…law- enforcement authorities are still struggling-- and in some cases refusing--to fully exploit DNA technology.” The Chicago Tribune examined every case in the U.S. where DNA testing has freed a convicted inmate, focusing on 115 murders and rapes where the release left a crime unsolved. In 18 of those cases, DNA was quickly used to link known suspects to the crime. But in 44 of the remaining 97 cases, or just under half, authorities have not followed up by submitting the genetic profile of the suspected perpetrator to the FBI's national DNA database, NDIS. October 26, 2003
Evidence Remains with Court Until 2007
Remember - Critical Factor….# (E) IS EVIDENCE PROTECTED FROM LOSS, CROSS TRANSFER, CONTAMINATION, AND /OR DELETERIOUS CHANGE? ASCLD/LAB Sensitivity of DNA Analysis Age of evidence is not important! BLOOD SEMEN SALIVA HAIR ROOTS BONE TOOTH PULP SKIN TISSUE SWEAT Swabs Clothing Pop cans Chewing gum Cigarette filters Dandruff Ski masks Condoms Hatbands, etc.
Chris Chiles, Prosecuting Attorney for Cabell County. 2008…..Childs said in prepared statement: "Early this summer we received notification that there was a [national DNA database] CODIS match between the unknown DNA profile from our case with an individual named Donald Good, who is from Kanawha County."
Woodall’s Appeal Lawyer Charleston, WV attorney Lonnie Simmons fought for years to have Woodall's DNA tested at a time when the science surrounding DNA evidence was in its infancy. Reached on Friday, Lonnie Simmons credited police and prosecutors for continuing to work on the case, even decades after the crimes occurred. "It shows the value of science," he said. "With this kind of evidence, you have actual objective facts. And those objective facts can be tested and reviewed by other scientists..” You eliminate some of the problems you have with eyewitness testimony and witnesses' memory. October 22, 2010, Charleston Gazette
Remember - Critical Factor…. # (E) DOES THE LABORATORY HAVE A WRITTEN OR SECURE ELECTRONIC CHAIN OF CUSTODY RECORD WITH ALL NECESSARY DATA WHICHPROVIDES FOR COMPLETE TRACKING OF ALL EVIDENCE? ASCLD/LAB Chain of Custody Demonstrate the integrity of the evidence from scene to court.
Evidence Chain of Custody
March 30, 2011 Forensic expert testifies during the second day of the Huntington Mall rape case trial on Wednesday, March 30, 2011, at the Cabell County Courthouse in Huntington.
April 1, 2011 The jury found Donald Good guilty on 20 of 22 counts. Cabell County Circuit Judge Alfred Ferguson sentenced him to two life sentences for each of the kidnapping charges plus 150 to 380 years for the remaining counts of sexual assault and sexual abuse.
Use of DNA Evidence According to the FBI, about a third of those named as the primary suspect in rape cases are excluded by DNA evidence. NRC 2, 1966 In the past 25 years, DNA testing has emerged as a revolutionary forensic tool, providing an unprecedented exactitude in identifying and convicting criminals and freeing prisoners convicted of crimes they did not commit, 273 to date. Historically, DNA technology has been used primarily as a prosecutorial weapon rather than an investigative tool, but the REAL promise of DNA evidence lies in its ability to be an investigation tool!! Widespread availability, longevity and sensitivity.
Critical Factors - Summary THE FBI QUALITY ASSURANCE STANDARDS AUDIT FOR FORENSIC DNA TESTING LABORATORIES IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE QUALITY ASSURANCE STANDARDS FOR FORENSIC DNA TESTING LABORATORIES EFFECTIVE SEPTEMBER 1, 2011 An Audit of: ______________ Dates of Audit: ____________ Auditor(s): _______________ Sensitivity of DNA Analysis Chain of Custody Acceptance of the DNA Tool Laboratory Practice Techniques used are generally accepted by the scientific community. Methods were done accord with scientific standards and produced reliable results for court consideration Access to the data, methodology, and actual results for an independent expert review.
Accreditation Pretrial hearings are required to determine whether the testing laboratory's methodology was substantially in accord with scientific standards and produced reliable results for jury consideration