Presentation on theme: "“The next time I have meat and mashed potatoes, I think I'll put a very large blob of potatoes on my plate with just a little piece of meat. And if someone."— Presentation transcript:
“The next time I have meat and mashed potatoes, I think I'll put a very large blob of potatoes on my plate with just a little piece of meat. And if someone asks me why I didn't get more meat, I'll just say, "Oh, you mean this?" and pull out a big piece of meat from inside the blob of potatoes, where I've hidden it. Good magic trick, huh?” - Jack Handy
After this lesson you will be able to: Explain the Structure & Composition of meats Distinguish the difference between Collagen and Elastin and how to handle the cooking of meats containing these items. Discuss the difference between Inspection and Grading Discuss how to determine the doneness of meats Discuss the method of Roasting Recognize the difference between Sautéing and Pan- Frying
Two types of connective tissue in meat Collagen (fr. Greek kolla: “glue”) – Found in interweaved in the meat the connective tissue. Elastin (from “elastic”) – Ligaments, tendons, Silver skin.
Collagen + Heat = Gelatin + Water Moist heat cooking methods at low temperatures break down collagen Acid will break down collagen Enzymes Chemical tenderizers Examples: Braised beef and beef stews. Osso Buco, Pot Roast, Brisket, Braised Short Ribs
A very elastic connective tissue that is not altered by the application of heat. Older animals have a higher proportion of Elastin than younger ones. The best way to Tenderize Elastin: 1. Cut it away 2. Pounding, “Cubing”, or “Jacquarding” 3. Grinding: hamburger 4. Slicing very thin across the grain. Example: Flank Steak, Fajitas, Brisket
Shortly after the beef is slaughtered the muscles contract and become hard and stiffen. Aging is the time it takes the muscles to loosen up and allowing Rigor Mortis to dissipate. There are two ways to age meat. Dry Aging and Wet Aging
Dry Aging: Stored in a room with controlled temperature, humidity and air flow for up to six weeks Develops mold (that must be trimmed off). Develops a tender and flavorful product Loses up to 5 to 20 percent of weight through evaporation This process is very costly, and has loss popularity in the industry.
Wet Aging: Manufacturing trade name, Cryovac Vacuum packed Under refrigeration for up to six weeks Natural enzymes break down connective tissues. Unpleasant odor when opened but does not affect the quality of the meat.
Dry AgingFactorsWet Aging No DifferenceTendernessNo Difference Juiciness No Difference FlavorNo Difference Overall PalatabilityNo Difference 4% - 19% Yield LossYield1% Yield Loss No DifferenceCooking LossNo Difference
Summary: The Smart Chef’s answer to connective tissue: CollagenElastin Cook slowly in a moist environmentRemove or break up physically
Parts of the animal that experience a lot of movement are most often cooked using either combination and/or moist cooking methods (Tougher Cuts). Chuck Brisket and Shank Short Plate Parts of the animal that experience little movement are most often cooked using dry cooking methods (tender Cuts). Rib Short Loin, Sirloin Some parts of the animal lends itself to all of the three cooking methods: Dry, Moist, and Combination. Round Flank
From the Forequarter come the following Primal Cuts: Chuck: High connective tissue Cross rib pot roast, cubed or tenderized steaks, stew meat, ground chuck Brisket and Shank: High connective tissue Rib (Prime Rib): Little connective tissue Purchased in rib roast, ribeye steak Short Plate: High connective tissue Skirt Steak and Short Ribs
BrisketChuck Short RibsPrime Rib
From the Hindquarter come the following Primal Cuts: Short Loin: Low connective tissue Club Steak, T-Bone Steak, Porterhouse Sirloin: Low to Moderate connective tissue Bone-in or Boneless roast Full Loin: Little connective tissue The Short Loin and Sirloin left intact From the Full Loin comes the Tenderloin The New York Strip Loin is the boneless Full Loin, from which the New York Strip is cut.
PorterhouseT-Bone Steak NY Strip SteakTenderloin
Continued Primal Cuts: Flank: High connective tissue, tough with long strands Round: Relatively Low connective tissue, but fairly tender Inside (top) round, outside round, eye round, knuckle, shank
ChuckChuck Roll tied, Stew Meat, Ground Meat Brisket/ShankBrisket, Shank RibRib Roast, Ribeye Steak Short PlateSkirt Steak (Fajitas), Short Rib SirloinStrip Steak, Top Sirloin Butt Short LoinPorterhouse, T-Bone Steak, Strip Loin, Tenderloin FlankFlank Steak RoundSteamship, Inside, Outside, Knuckle, Eye of Round
DonenessColorResistanceIdeal Temp Very Rare (Blue)Raw LookingNo Resistance115 – 120 F RareLarge deep red center Slight resistance, spongy F Medium RareBright Red centerSome resistance, springy 130 – 140 F MediumRosy pink red center Slightly firm, springy 140 – 150 F Medium WellLittle pink centerFirm, springy155 – 165 F Well DoneNo RedQuite Firm, springs back quickly 165 F + Not recommend
Degree of Doneness Ideal Internal Temp after Carryover Average Minutes per Pound Very Rare125 – 130 F Rare130 – 140 F Medium F Well Done F Assumes meat is at room temperature before roasting and cooked at a constant 325 F.
Roasting Defined Cooking food by surrounding it with hot, dry air (usually in an oven) uncovered using primarily convection method of heat transfer. Tenting: Using a loose cover to slow down the caramelizing process during roasting.
General Method 1. Truss: Tying the meat to form a uniform even mass 2. Sear: Browning meat on all sides (Pan or Oven Sear) 3. Season or Un-Season 4. Uncovered 5. Check for doneness but must consider carryover cooking 6. Rest before slicing 7. Carve against the grain
Larding: Inserting fat with a larding needle. For less marbled cuts of meat, simulates marbling. Barding: Covering the surface of a piece of meat with a thin layer of fat. For leaner tougher meats, simulates fat cover.
Fond: Concentrated juices, drippings left on the bottom of a roasting pan. Fond Lie: Deglazed juices and drippings thickened slightly with corn starch. Jus: Natural un-thickened juices left on the bottom of a roasting pan. Jus Lie: Natural juices thickened slightly with corn starch. Pan Gravy: All the juices and drippings thickened with a thickening agent.