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HISTORICAL INFLUENCES ON FASHION Early 20th Century

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Presentation on theme: "HISTORICAL INFLUENCES ON FASHION Early 20th Century"— Presentation transcript:

1 HISTORICAL INFLUENCES ON FASHION Early 20th Century 1901 - 1920
Survey of Historic Costume (Fairchild Publications, 2003)

2 Political Influences World War I More women in workforce Military cuts
Practical, comfortable clothes Shorter skirts (above ankle) Military cuts Trench Coat Before showing slide, ask students what major political event occurred in the early 1900’s. (WWI) Show slide. State that events of WWI impacted the fashion scene. Mainly due to women going into the workforce. Ask students how this might impact fashion? State that clothing not only was necessary to make it easier to work, but also fashioned that of the military.

3 Technology Influences
Automobile Development of “travel” fashions: the duster, goggles, caps with visors, veiled hats History of Automobile Ask students who they think invented the automobile (No, it’s not Ford). Share the following history with students: (http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aacarssteama.htm) While Leonardo Da Vinci and Isaac Newton were considered to be the first to draw up the first theoretical plans for a motor vehicle, most historians agree that French engineer and mechanic Nicolas Joseph Cugnot, in 1769, developed the first steam-powered road vehicle. Of course, many other inventors followed suit, with Ford being the most famous. Ask students: But how did the invention and subsequent use of the automobile influence fashion? Show slide, then next slide.

4 The duster was the typical “driving” fashion of the early 20th century
Note the duster, goggles, and veiled hat to keep the dirt and dust off of their hair and clothes.

5 HISTORICAL INFLUENCES ON FASHION 1920’s, 1930’s and 1940’s
Ask students what historical events they can remember about this time period (Stock Market Crash/Depression, World War II, e.g.) State that there were influences during this time period, like in the previous one; however, specific events resulted in different results in the fashion industry. Survey of Historic Costume (Fairchild Publications, 2003)

6 Social Life of the 1920’s Revolution of mores and values
Prohibition – lead to the “speak-easy” (later, known as the nightclub) Flapper Era - “The Roaring Twenties” Body more revealed Short hair Increased use of make-up Introduction of the “trouser” Ask students why they think post-war events would affect the social aspect of consumers. Share responses. State that along with more “education”, book-reading and cross-cultural influences, the traditional ways of thinking were evolving. Pressures like the Temperance Movement resulted in Prohibition; however, consumers, having desires and money “revolted” in a sense through Speak Easys and fashion (not unlike the “sexual revolution” of the 1960’s.)

7 Typical 1920’s Flapper style: Short hair
Silhouette: Straight, “tubular” dress Shortened hemline Lots of rouge and lipstick Fashion had changed along with the thought patterns of consumers. Women wanted more freedom (e.g. suffrage movement) and the fashions reflected this. Tubular dresses with freedom of movement replaced the corsets of the past. Shortened hemlines, sleeveless clothing also reflected this desire to be free of the past beliefs. (By the way, men’s styles did not change so radically, although suits were becoming looser-fitting.)

8 World War II French couture (fashion) cut off during German Occupation
On the home front: Leather shoes rationed “L-85 Regulations” restricted quantity of cloth to be used for civilian clothing Restricted use of nylon, wool, silk, natural rubber Like World War I, the fashion industry was affected. Ask students to recall some of these events. Show slide. Ask students why the German occupation of France would have affected fashion: most of the fashion movement in the U.S. originated in Paris and other European countries. Communication that helped the fashion movement in the past was less prevalent. Travel abroad was minimal. Emphasize the restriction of textiles.

9 Let’s go to the Movies - hairstyles
Jean Harlow Shirley Temple

10 Sports Influence Increased participation by women
“Sportswear” established as separate fashion category Say: As in the last era, women became more prevalent in sports. What did we learn in the past lesson about how sports influences fashion? Share responses. Tell students that the name of a new fashion category came into existence during this time. Ask them what they think it might be called. Share responses. Show slide.

11 Art Influence of the Period
Art Deco Architecture and interiors Geometric shapes Cubism Notables: William Van Allen Pablo Picasso Henry Dreyfuss As with many eras of history, art is a major influence on the fashion movement. Most notable are the art deco and surrealistic art styles of the 1930’s and 1940’s. Fabric designs were influenced by notables artisits, Pablo Picasso and Henry Dreyfuss. Note the triangular collars and necklines, geometric patterns in fabric and silhouette

12 Surrealism (“beyond the real”)
Fabric prints and appointments that seem out of place Notable: Salvador Dali

13 HISTORICAL INFLUENCES ON FASHION Post WWII through 1964
Ask students what historical events they can remember about this time period (world War II, Cold War, Civil Rights Movement) State that there were influences during this time period, like in the previous one; however, specific events resulted in different results in the fashion industry. Survey of Historic Costume (Fairchild Publications, 2003)

14 Teen Market Emerges Originated in Britain
Teddy Boys – first independent teen fashion movement Significance: Promoted BY and FOR young people Began among lower classes (trickle-up) Evidenced as lifestyle cult Emphasize that Paris is still the fashion capital of the world; however, a new trend had emerged that impacted the fashion movement. State that until this time, most of the fashion “trickled down” (recall trickle down theory from previous lesson). Ask students what this means (fashion starts at the wealthy through haute couture and trickles down to the masses). Explain: After the war, British teenagers who had worked during the war had money to spend, and many continued to work. These were working-class young men, not the wealthy. They wore clothing styles established by their fathers of the “Edwardian” period, named for King Edward VII during the turn of the century. However, the clothing was not as strict with relaxed details. They dubbed themselves the “Teddy Boys” (Teddy is short for Edward). Show slide. Emphasize the importance of this fashion trend through its significance of being promoted BY the market that wore it instead of some other group marketing it TO them. Also, it is an example of the trickle up theory – the style was developed by the lower class, and the upper class followed suit as designers began using the style. Show next slide as illustration.

15 Teddy Boys Fashion Longer coats with velvet or satin collars
“Drainpipe” ties Slicked back hair D.A. haircuts Note the velvet collars (or satin) and the ties. D.A. stands for (duck asses), the precursor to the American ducktail hairstyle. Pants were shorter, revealing patterned socks. State that young girls’ fashions also followed the Teddy Boys fashion. Show next slide.

16 Teddy Girls Fashion Velvet collars D.A. haircuts Turban-style headwear
Lace-up espadrilles Girls also had velvet collars with the longer coats (Edwardian style) with the short D.A. hairstyle.

17 TV FASHION INFLUENCE Note the patterned socks (reminiscent of the Teddy Boys) with the white bucks. Note the slicked-back hair of Elvis

18 TV FASHION INFLUENCE Lucille Ball’s pregnancy, the focus of the 2nd season of I Love Lucy, freed designers to more publicly address the need for fashionable maternity clothes

19 Political Scene John Kennedy – no hat at inauguration influenced decline of hat in men’s fashions Jacqueline Kennedy Pill box hat A-line skirts Low-slung pumps Revival of empire style (from Greek) Recall that at the beginning of our lessons on historical influence, royalty had been a major influence on fashion styles. This is true in this era; however, the royalty in U.S. was the presidency. Show slide. John F. Kennedy made it ok for men to not wear hats, but his wife was the real influence on women’s fashion of this era: Note that Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy (Onassis), unofficially the “American Queen” served as the influence for royalty fashion. Show next slide to illustrate some of the trends.

20 Empire waist Pillbox Hat A-line styling
The pillbox hat became a major fashion statement, as did the a-line dress and skirt. Her wide use of the empire waistline in formalwear is a revival of the Greek-inspired style that is revived periodically throughout fashion history. Empire waist Pillbox Hat A-line styling

21 HISTORICAL INFLUENCES ON FASHION Vietnam Era 1964-1974
Ask students what historical events they can remember about this time period (Viet Nam war obviously; Civil Rights Act, Feminist Movement) State that this era is called the Vietnam Era, not because of a direct influence from the war (as in other periods) but because of the social impact of the war. Emphasize that it is the social changes in this era that impacted fashion more than in any other period. Survey of Historic Costume (Fairchild Publications, 2003)

22 Mod Fashion of the 1960’s Elegance Edwardian flair “Long” hair
May 13, 1966 issue of Life Magazine reflects that influence of the male mod fashion. Note the Edwardian flair (conservative style) but the shorter pants, reminiscent of the Teddy Boys. The popularity of the Beatles perpetuated this style. Show next slide.

23 “Beatlemania” In the early years of The Beatles, the mod fashion was popular. Beatlessullivansinging.jpg

24 Rockers Fashion of the 1960’s
Leather jackets Motorcycles The other look of the early 1960’s, also started in England is the rocker. Although this picture is taken from a “rocker reunion” the clothing is still reminiscent of the time period, with black leather jackets. They rode motorcycles, and are probably the precursor to the “Hell’s Angels”, “Fonzie” look in the U.S. Although the mod look prevailed in the fashion world, the rocker style developed into a sub-culture of fashion.

25 Hippie Fashion Eclectic clothing Long hair Thrift store purchases
Communal living Hippies represented a social change that expressed a revolt against the values of the “establishment” – the adult society. Surfacing in 1966 in the Haight-Ashbury District of San Francisco, hippies followed Timothy Leary, who proposed the use of LSD and the philosophy of love and freedom from the constraints of the “straight” society. The conversion to non-traditional religions was another form of rebelling against the norms of American culture. The clothing style of the hippie, although not originally adopted to be stylish, caught on among the young people – not just hippies. While true hippie clothing was usually purchased at thrift stores and was eclectic in nature (no particular style), designers soon saw the spread of the style among the young. Toward the end of the 1960’s, the mod and hippie styles both stressed long hair for men and women with lots of color and imagination in the clothing. The styles began to catch on in the mainstream fashion world of entertainment and media. Ask students what kind of fashion movement this is (trickle-up theory).

26 Mod fashions of the 1960’s Color Eclectic Mini skirt
As the fashion designers watched the young people’s choice of clothing, the mod fashion of the mid-60’s soon took hold, but was merged with the bright colors of the hippies. Note the bright colors, star emblem and the mini skirt, which was a design original of Mary Quant (more on her later).

27 Unisex Fashion Ties Pantsuits Annie Hall look
In response to the feminist movement, designers developed the unisex look. The new look lasted for many years and was highlighted in the 1977 movie “Annie Hall” with Diane Keaton and Woody Allen. angellkg/1960.HTML archives/Hall.jpg

28 African Fashion Influence
The kente cloth is woven on a narrow horizontal loom. The cloth is woven in narrow strips that are about 3-5 inches wide and about 5-6 feet long. Several strips are sewn together to make a wider piece of cloth for both men and women. A man's cloth may contain up to 24 strips and measure about 5x8 feet. The woman's two-piece cloth may contain 8-12 strips each piece. Kente cloth is then fashioned into dashikis or caftans African caftan dashiki Kente cloth

29 Jeans rule Levi Strauss Trademark
While jeans are not a new clothing item – they were actually introduced in the U.S. by Levi Strauss as a working-man’s clothing in the 1800’s – jeans as a fashion statement became popular as an outcrop of the hippie, anti-establishment movement. Part of the movement involved heralding the working man – a communisitic ideal – and the fashion was picked up by designers. The rest is history.

30 Op Art Pop Art http://www.ritsumei.ac.jp/~akitaoka/opart-e.html
"Optical Art" (or "Op Art", as it's more commonly known) is comprised of illusion, and often appears - to the human eye - to be moving or breathing due to its precise, mathematically-based composition. The term “pop art” first appeared in Britain during the 1950s and referred to the interest of a number of artists in the images of mass media, advertising, comics and consumer products. Both of these artistic movements influenced the mod fashions of the 1960’s and early 70’s. (show next slide) artsdidactica/art/pintura/pop_art/warCAMP.jpg

31 www.sixtiescity.velnet.com/ Fash2/Fashion2.htm
Doesn’t it look like something Fran Drescher would wear in “The Nanny”? Fash2/Fashion2.htm

32 HISTORICAL INFLUENCES ON FASHION 1975-1996
Ask students what historical events they can remember about this time period. Share responses. State that the major emphasis of this period revolves around political and economic trends that impacted the social climate and the fashion industry. Survey of Historic Costume (Fairchild Publications, 2003)

33 U.S. History Social/Technology
Baby Boomers having children “Kiddie Couture” (NY Times) During this time period, especially in the 1980’s, baby boomers, the largest demographic group at this time, were having babies. Due to the somewhat affluence of the decade, baby boomer parents sought out fashionable clothing for their children. Designers like Ralph Lauren, Burberry and Dolce expanded its lines to include “Kiddie Couture” to target this market.

34 Changes in the Fashion Industry
GATT Treaty (General Agreements on Tariffs and Trade) Apparel production shifts to 3rd world countries NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) With industry becoming more and more global, changes in domestic (U.S.) production occurred: The GATT Treaty which was initiated in 1944, was revised in 1994 to lead to a gradual termination of all quotas for imports. In other words, there can be more imports without tariffs. This has resulted in a decline in domestic apparel production, allowing production to be originated in 3rd world countries. Ask students why apparel manufacturers would want to produce in these countries (CHEAPER!) This is similar to NAFTA, which we have already learned.

35 Major Fashion Trends Retro (retrospective) Revival of previous styles
Ask students what “retro” means (styles revived from the past). Show next 2 slides.

36 1970’s power suit revisited the padded shoulders and the tailored jacket of the 1940’s
Here’s an example of a retro style of the 1940’s. html

37 And here’s clothing reminiscent of the 1920’s and 1950’s. In the 1980’s formal wear was reminiscent of the lower waist lines of the Roaring 20’s and the puffed sleeves of the 1950’s, ushering in a revival of the “romantic” era

38 Major Fashion Trends Yuppies and Preps Power suits (Yuppies)
Classic tweed, tailored skirts, pants, shirts, loafers, oxfords, low pumps (Preps)

39 Other 1970’s Fashion Trends
Other fashion trends that emerged during the 1970’s are the variety in hemlines, hot pants, wide, flare-legged pants and the popular leisure suit. Other 1970’s Fashion Trends

40 Other 1980’s fashion trends
com/history8c.htm See-thru shirt, tight short skirt, jelly bracelets, big hair, lacy anklets with pumps, Madonna, acid-washed jeans and legwarmers (a la “Footloose”) Other 1980’s fashion trends

41 Major Fashion Trends Punk – a London original
Sid Vicious of the Sex Pistols is the most popular and visible icon of the 1980’s British punk movement Influenced by British culture, the punk movement, like the hippies, demonstrated a shift from the accepted fashion norm. Note the torn shirt and spiked hair WellAlwaysRemember.2/SidVicious.htm

42 Major Fashion Trends African American Revival
Inner-city youth influence Rap/hip hop musicians Revival of kente cloth (and imitators) Baggy pants, over-sized shirts Dreadlocks Emergence of black fashion models, designers Review the African American trends of this era. Show next 2 slides.

43 Influence of the African American movement through the 1990’s.
Rappers NWA dreadlocks Influence of the African American movement through the 1990’s. From fashions influenced by rap and hip-hop to dreadlocks and the baggy look, the African American fashion movement has been a major focus of the 1980’s and 90’s.

44 The emergence of black models and designers reflected the importance and impact of the African American fashion movement

45 Consumer Changes of the Era
Baby Boomers older (32-50) Obesity Styles, stores targeted to larger consumers Revolt of “heroin chic” (skinny bodies) Fitness Craze Leggings, high tech fabrics, micro fiber Jogging suits High tech athletic shoes Continuation of casual wear – “Casual Fridays” The Baby Boomers have aged. This is now the largest segment, aged Ask students how this might affect the fashion trends (designers offering styles that fit this age group). 33% of Americans are overweight. Ask students how this might affect the fashion industry (new target market, clothes to fit the expanding bodies, increase in stores to fit the larger consumer – Lane Bryant, Big and Tall Shops for men). The increase in obesity lead to the fitness craze and new fabric technology

46 Review of Fashion Influences
Silhouette Hemlines Technology Fabrics/textiles Political arena Current events Media Consumer changes Review the MAJOR fashion influences throughout the decade: State that silhouette refers to the shape of styles. Ask students to recall some of the silhouette changes throughout the century (tight fitting clothing of the Edwardian Period, loose non-waisted clothing of the Flapper era; tailored, slim-fitting suits of the 1940’s; revival of non-waisted clothing during the 1960’s; wide, padded shoulders of 1980’s) Hemlines: Ask students to recall the change in hemlines (long to knee-length of 1920’s, back to below the knee around WWII; mini skirts of 1960’s-1980’s; variety of lengths) Technology: Ask students to recall how technology influenced fashion (auto – hemlines, styles like the duster and veiled hats; labor-saving devices allowed more leisure time, resulting in the need for easy-care fabrics) Fabrics/textiles: nylon, rayon, acetates, polyesters, micro fibers; “wash-and-wear” Political arena: Edwardian styles (King Edward VII); women’s movement (1920’s, 1960’s); Jackie Kennedy (pill box hat, a-line style), Princess Diana (revival of romantic period) Current events: WWI and WWII (women in the work force resulted in shorter hemlines, pants); trade restrictions lifted (China, NAFTA, etc.) resulted in more cultural influence, other sources for cheaper labor; Civil Rights Movement (more awareness of African American, incorporated into fashion) Media: Movies, TV, Music, Art. Ask students for examples. Consumer changes: aging Baby Boomers; obesity; changing lifestyles (fitness, casual, sports)


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