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Indian Urban Planning: Limits to Economic Growth and Inclusion Prof. Smita Srinivas, Columbia University Urban Planning and Technological Change Lab (TCLab)

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Presentation on theme: "Indian Urban Planning: Limits to Economic Growth and Inclusion Prof. Smita Srinivas, Columbia University Urban Planning and Technological Change Lab (TCLab)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Indian Urban Planning: Limits to Economic Growth and Inclusion Prof. Smita Srinivas, Columbia University Urban Planning and Technological Change Lab (TCLab) Champaka Rajagopal, Principal, Planning and Design Groupe SCE (India) Roundtable on Inclusive Cities Jan New Delhi

2 Limits to growth and inclusion Urban Economic and Industrial challenges externalities interfering in way industries advance, lack of worker-work-site amenities, mobility constraints from home to worksite and of home as worksite, agglomeration challenges for knowledge and tech investments. Industrial employment, land, housing, and mobility challenges industrial land planned without worker housing/transport/services; land “for growth uses” conflicts with environmental goals and other uses. Inclusive Industrial growth cannot occur without long-term planning for technological capabilities, employment, and land issues. No nodal or other agency oversees the coordination between the goals for strategic economic urban, regional, and sector plans. Sectors advance neither efficiently nor equitably. 'Inclusion' and 'exclusion' go hand in hand. There are serious industrial, technological, employment and environmental problems with our current development model.

3 Recent changes for urban work NREGA JNNURM Supreme court judgments/conflicts NCEUS/Social security for informal workers Affordable housing: – BSUP under JNNURM has many complications. – Premium land currently occupied by the migrant-urban poor in Mumbai, is landlocked [Phatak et al, 2011]. Employment guarantee Urban fiscal devolution, and public infrastructure Right to work vs. right to urban space to work: No provisions for externalities of activities related to production/ trade and for expansion of small and medium units in urbanized areas. Permissible uses often indicated as homogenous. Comprehensive social protections and minima New counting/census informality statistics New counting of informal workers Information New land and housing rules, financing, products, participation

4 Master Plan / Comprehensive Development Plan CENTRE Five year Plans – socio economic in nature STATE Spatial Plans District Plans – non Spatial LOCAL No spatial plans Responsible only for implementation Superceded by the State 74 th CAA STATE Districts Taluka / Tehsil / Sub District Spation + Socio economic developm ent of the area DPC LOCAL Spatial Plans by the Corporations and the Municipal Councils. Wards Area Sabhas Consolid ation MPC or DPC JNNURM CENTRE National Steering Group Mission Directorate Central Sanctioning & Monitoring Committee SLSC SNA ULBs / Parastatal Administrative Section Urban Local Body TAGTAG STATE LOCAL Outsour ced to private sector Policy and Vision Participatory Mapped and environmentally regulated Development SLSC State Level Steering Committee SNA State Nodal Agency TAG Urban Local BodyULB District Planning Committee MPCMetropolitan Planning Committee CENTRE Five year Plans – socio economic in nature State and Planning Institutions and Plans at the three tiers Source: Mohan, 2010, Groupe SCE India

5 Inclusive Cities The 11th Five year plan calls for a need to restructure the role of Govt. by suggesting that scarce public resources best be channelized towards social sectors rather than sectors where private sectors operating under competitive market can deliver. Source: An Approach to the 11 th Five Year Plan- Towards Faster and More Inclusive Growth, Planning Commission, Govt. of India

6 INDUSTRIAL GROWTH and INCLUSION: All models skirt ULBs and devolution EXCLUSION OF INDUSTRIAL ZONES FROM THE DECENTRALIZATION AGENDA GREEN FIELD SITES: The Yamuna Expressway Region, NCR BROWN FIELD SITES: Bhiwadi, NCR REGIONS AND CITIES: Bangalore Metropolitan Region HOUSING FOR THE POOR: BSUP Project, Panaji, Goa

7 State and PlanningLaws and Norms Freight Corridors The Delhi- Mumbai Industrial Corridor: Excluded from the decentralization agenda and municipalization has a financial outlay of USD 90 billion, covers a length of length of 1483 KMs, nine Mega Industrial zones of about sq. km., high speed freight line, three ports, and six air ports; a six- lane intersection-free expressway. Located amidst agricultural lands and in environmentally sensitive areas. Example: Gujarat

8 State and PlanningLaws and Norms Growth and land use versus other uses Areas designated as ‘industrial’ in master plans are auctioned/ sold by industrial development authorities to private builders for residential/ entertainment uses. YEIDA PLAN Source: Public display of the Master Plan for YEA Region, YEIDA Demographic analyses do not consider detail sector based employment scenarios for manufacturing and services. IT sector and retail ‘success’ seeps into all neighbourhoods, brings own externalities. Street vendors displaced. No innovative mixed use for low-income sellers.

9 Master planning does not account for housing for migrant labor. Sub-standard construction workers one room tenement, shared unit, in Bhiwadi, NCR. Residential area allocated: 21.6% and industrial areas 29% of the total land within the jurisdiction. Development regulations promote gated multi-storied apartment units. Policy and SchemesState and Planning Employment, Risk, and the city

10 State and PlanningLaws and Norms Conflicts: Judicial and Enforcement wings State’s different efforts segment the city – Regional and state government agencies – Central agencies – Urban Planning and development bodies:

11 Developable Settlements State and PlanningLaws and Norms Lands identified as environmentally sensitive in Structure Plan for the Bangalore Metropolitan Region notified for industrial use by industrial development authorities, here the KIADB. Growth and land use versus other uses

12 Existing Land Use: 2003Proposed Land Use: RMP 2015 Peenya Industrial Area and its vicinities: Mixed Land Use Permissible land uses: Main land use category: R Ancillary land use category: C3, I-2,T2 and U4 Ancillary land use is permissible up to 30% of the total built up area Parking: Buildings with a floor area not exceeding 100sqm are exempted from providing car parking. However, equivalent parking fee shall be levied as determined by the authority from time to time. Externalities of mixed use zone, for example increased parking, not incorporated in the zonal regulations. State and PlanningLaws and Norms Growth and land use versus other uses

13 T. P. Scheme, Ahmedabad; Source: AUDA Nation-city dysfunction: No relationship between 5 year Plans, economic growth projections and actual urban/regional industrial growth. City-neighbourhood dysfunction: Master plans at scales of 1:50,000 and 1: 5000 for analyses as the only tool for planning and implementation does not capture change on the ground Institutional dysfunction: Town planning scheme: The only planning tool for micro-level planning in the town & country planning acts woefully out of date and inadequate. Implementation of the TPS requires institutional restructuring in most ULBs, thereby a deterrent. Micro-needs of industry and workers impossible to spatially and physically embed in cities. Indian master plans have no micro- level analog for implementation, and no mechanisms in town and country planning acts. State and PlanningLaws and Norms Inadequate tools for implementation

14 State and PlanningLaws and Norms Inadequate institutions and tools for implementation Coordinated Planning Scheme (CPS) Designated on lands occupied by industries under decline - A tool for facilitating urban renewal and large scale infrastructure through coordinated land pooling - The CPS Scheme was adapted by the development authority as a tool to reserve land for future acquisition by the development authority.

15 PEENYA: OLD SUCCESS STORY But now: absence of a planning tool/ legal and institutional framework for coordinated micro-level planning. Fragmented development across industrial and residential at the micro level. No strategic view of optimizing skills, existing SMEs, training facilities, or expansion of private firms. Municipal councils skirt ULBs and Development Authorities for subdivision and building permits KIADB and BDA do not coordinate regarding subdivision regulations creating fragmented discontinuous urban areas. State and PlanningLaws and Norms Inadequate tools for implementation No contiguity between Peenya industrial layout and adjoining residential layouts. Infrastructure has not been integrated in the design of the layout. Eg: Logistics zone, truck parking, warehousing Industrial area built upon environmentally sensitive area

16 Building on lake beds and watersheds causes flooding, health hazards- disease, decline in land price and neglect towards infrastructure. Existing Land Use 2003 and RMP2015, Electronic City and Bommanahalli, Bangalore Bangalore Policy and SchemesState and Planning Flooding 2005, Bangalore, Bommanahalli Employment, Risk, and the city

17 Ground Reality Zonal Regulations and building byelaws do not address the real demand for work spaces and mixed use in areas occupied by informal industrial sites such as Pete, Yeshwantpur etc, in Bangalore. These areas become semi-autonomous zones and skirt regulations through tenuous negotiations with power groups to meet their occupational land needs. State and PlanningLaws and Norms Partial and selective implementation Informal industrial zones Plot size: 9 sqm Setback: None Ground coverage: 100 % Building height: G+4 Floor Area Ratio: % Ground Coverage Plot size: 36 sqm Setback: 1m all around Ground coverage: 60 % Building height: G+1 or 2 Ground reality Regulation

18 REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT REQUIRES KEEN MONITORING THROUGH A ULB WITH CAPACITY. FLEXIBLE MIXED USE ZONING DOES NOT ANTICIPATE NEGATIVE EXTERNALITIES IN TERMS OF TRAFFIC, PARKING, POLLUTION, SOLID WASTE AND HENCE NO PROVISIONS HAVE BEEN MADE IN THE ZR REGARDLESS OF RIGID OR FLEXIBLE REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION IS SELECTIVE State and PlanningLaws and Norms Partial and selective implementation

19 Migrant workers, Panaji, a city of 80,000 Tin shed houses, 80% of households no water connections, 93% with no toilet facilities of their own. BSUP Scheme used for resettlement of migrant workers Land designated outside Panaji jurisdiction on low lying flood prone area for the under-privileged Project approved by the Centre within 5 days of commencement of the task But beneficiary list un-definable due to vote bank politics, Project shelved, Site now being converted to affordable sector housing under PPP with mall as commercial use. Policy and SchemesState and Planning Migrant workers, BSUP Schemehousing Mumbai has introduced affordable rental housing for the migrant laborers. A more desirable model that accommodates mobility of labor and spatial allocation

20 S. Korea

21 N. Korea

22 Tokyo: Urban-centered social investment-led industrial strategy Urban and regional Development – Neighbourhood-tied industrial investment coordination strategy for externalities – Social investments in healthcare, education and training, housing and transport – Social protections integrate corporate welfare and small and micro businesses under health and welfare programs – Industrial and environmental strategies brought together under Tokyo Govt. – Industrial city act, Technopolis Urban rejuvenation program – Private finance initiative, park projects, Downtown (PFI) program in public investments – Revitalisation Act, Minkatsu Act investment projects ((the use of the private sector for public work) Manufacturing production, Development of new technologies, from heavy to knowledge- linked to environment, medical and incentive and to information welfare, nanotechnology and information technology Public investment, Physical infrastructure for R&D infrastructure, transport Source: Fujita (2003)

23 TAMA project: A model project of Industrial Cluster Program TAMA: – Technology Advanced Metropolitan Area TAMA Association: – Intermediary organization between universities and firms, and among firms in TAMA established in 1998 Geographical location: – Southwestern part of Saitama Prefecture, – Tama district: of Tokyo Metropolis and – Central part of Kanagawa Prefecture. Tokyo: Urban-centered social investment-led industrial strategy

24 Capacity building Indian labour economists ignore urban and spatial context, physical planners have little employment and industry focus and national economic plans and policies have little urban relationship. Sector plans and policies rarely have ULBs discussed. The municipal corporations and parastatals have no trained economic development planners to embed economic and industrial plans. Engineers dominate these decisions, and management consulting firms with little urban industrial experience dominate national priorities with little institutional analysis. E.g. Bangalore BDA vested with the responsibility to prepare the master plan for a city of 7 million population had 3 urban planners in its TP division [Mohan and Rajagopal, 2010] and none qualified to address long-term economic and social issues. In contrast, cities such as Tokyo, Frankfurt, Singapore or New York have far more integrated industrial and economic growth plans, urban and neighbourhood institutions for community participation and sector expansion, urban and regional plans for significant infrastructure and capability building for industries that helps, not hinders citizens. Urban economic and industrial restructuring is overseen by agencies with trained staff and significant consulting expertise by experts. This is over and above basic facilities for citizens such as water and sanitation, pavements, and safe roads.

25 Limits to growth and inclusion Urban Economic and Industrial challenges externalities interfering in way industries advance, lack of worker-work-site amenities, mobility constraints from home to worksite and of home as worksite, agglomeration challenges for knowledge and tech investments. Industrial employment, land, housing, and mobility challenges industrial land planned without worker housing/transport/services; land “for growth uses” conflicts with environmental goals and other uses. Inclusive Industrial growth cannot occur without long-term planning for technological capabilities, employment, and land issues. No nodal or other agency oversees the coordination between the goals for strategic economic urban, regional, and sector plans. Sectors advance neither efficiently nor equitably. 'Inclusion' and 'exclusion' go hand in hand. There are serious industrial, technological, employment and environmental problems with our current development model.

26 Thank you


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